10+ Effect of Increasing Dietary Threonine Intakes on Amino Acid Metabolism of the Central Nervous System and Peripheral Tissues in Growing Rats

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The threonine content of most of the infant formulas currently on the market is approximately 20% higher than the threonine concentration in human milk. Due to this high threonine content the plasma threonine concentrations are up to twice as high in premature infants fed these formulas than in infants fed human milk. To study the effect of different threonine intakes on plasma and tissue amino acid concentrations, 24 young male Wistar rats were fed three experimental diets based on a mixture of bovine proteins with a whey protein/casein ratio of 60/40 with different threonine contents [group A, 0.86 g of threonine/100 g (n = 8); group B, 1.03 g of threonine/100 g (n = 8); group C, 2.21 g of threonine/100 g (n = 8)]. Eight animals were fed a typical rat diet based on bovine casein as controls. After a feeding period of 15 d, amino acids were measured in plasma and in homogenates of the cerebral cortex, brain stem, liver, and muscle. There was a significant correlation between threonine intake and plasma threonine levels (r = 0.687, p < 0.001). The plasma threonine concentration correlated significantly with the threonine concentration in the cortex (r = 0.821, p < 0.01) and the brain stem (r = 0.882, p < 0.01). There was a positive significant correlation between threonine and glycine concentrations in the cortex (r = 0.673, p < 0.01), and the brain stem (r = 0.575, p < 0.01), whereas the glycine concentration decreased with increasing threonine intakes in the liver and muscle. The presented data indicate that increasing the threonine in plasma leads to increasing brain glycine and thereby affects the neurotransmitter balance in the brain. This may have consequences for brain development during early postnatal life. Therefore, excessive threonine intake during infant feeding should be avoided.

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