Language - Meaning and style in language | cypenv.info
Materials: please send a brief list of published materials you have used In this space comment on what the speakers actually say and the intended meaning that lies What general comment can you make about the relationship between form the reasons for these) in one of the following areas when learning English . In the noun form of 'can', it's pretty obvious so let's explore the meanings and uses of can and could. We tend to use could as the past tense of can to talk about ability in It's not idiomatic English to use can in the second and third is used to talk about being allowed to do something now or in general. First, one must recognize that the meaning of any sentence comprises two parts: the The formal resources of any language for making distinctions in the structural The principal resources are word order, word form, and, in speech, pitch and In English, as an example, a word or phrase can be highlighted by being.
On the basis of these features the person forms the concept of the referent in his mind. These features are, thus, crucial or criterial for the formation of the concept.
Every word has a bundle of such features which in their totality are crucial for the determination of the meaning of a word. It is not only the presence of these features which is crucial for the determination of the meaning even their absence is equally crucial.
So this is a positive or plus feature. But whereas man has the feature of adult child does not have it. In the latter case adult is a negative or minus feature See It is clear from the foregoing discussions that meaning is an abstraction or generalization based on the semantic feature of the events or things.
Meaning And its relationship to Form
The notion of abstraction is not confined to the objects which have actual and concrete referents in the extra-linguistic world only but extends to cover such fictitious and imaginary referents as unicorn, fairy etc. Some other classes of lexical units like attitudinal symptoms like hallo, Hindi are, Skt.
Hale 'o', pragmatic operators like please, deictic markers H. These lexical units, although they do not have actual referents in the extra-linguistic world, are comparable to them in that they either carry the information comparable to that conveyed by the denotative words, or they stand for them as yah 'this' vah 'that or denote the relational functions which make the communication possible.
All these classes of lexical units have been stabilized as part of the language and have their own communicative value. The lexicographer includes and describes them in the dictionary although the mode and type of their definition and description is different from those of the denotational words. But they are identified and described differently in different languages so that the features determining the meaning become language specific.
What is crucial in one language may not be the same in another. What is denoted by hand and arm in English has only one word in Rusian ruka.
The hole of the needle is described differently by different languages. NidaThe most notable lexical items in which languages differ in the organisation of the concepts into linguistic forms are kinship terms, terms for colour and words denoting time.
The English word brother-in-law has seven equivalent in Hindi, bahanoii. Hindi bhaiyaa or daadaa 'elder brother' has the following words in Bengali denoting the order of the brothers according to age: Oriya has only niila to denote both blue and green. English has eleven colour terms as compared to two in Jale, three in Tiv, six in Tamil and twelve in Angami.
The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph.
Paragraphs structure and linking
Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, and practised examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc. The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary.
Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects. It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students sometimes complain that the lengths demanded of essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically, without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition.
Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently, so do not leap about from point to point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one which follows. If you do leave one part of the essay to move onto another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.
After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about? Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis?
You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. Strong sentences are essential in terms of the flow of your essay. When signalling the fact that they now want to begin a discussion about the imagery of the text in question, students often begin paragraphs with a sentence such as the following: What is wrong with this particular sentence? To start with there is no real need to introduce the subject so mechanically: Secondly, as the student has chosen to write about the imagery there is no need to state that it is important.
If it was not important then the student should not have chosen to write about it. Please note that there would be no objection to a sentence such as 'I will now go on to discuss the imagery, which is fundamental to a full understanding of the story', although it would be even better if the type of imagery was identified.
This says something different. Do not repeat these phrases mechanically in your essays - the imagery will not always be absolutely key to understanding the story. Use your common sense. You can introduce the subject of imagery in a strong sentence, at the beginning of a paragraph, by simply starting to discuss it straightaway.
If you have identified a number of images, metaphors, etc. As an example, here is a paragraph which starts to deal with the literary language in Graham Greene's ' The Destructors '. This paragraph would ideally come about a third or half way into the essay, as it comes after the introduction and signals the fact that some analysis has already been carried out.
Suggested Model A discussion of the imagery can reinforce the general points made above; broadly speaking there are two main sets of images and metaphors, dealing firstly with the tensions between the individual and the community, to which I will turn later, and secondly focusing on Christian symbolism.
A number of the images have religious connotations. It is significant that Old Misery's house was designed by Christopher Wren, who was the seventeenth century architect of St. By mentioning Wren Greene is attempting to show the presence of the past in the present and how irrelevant it seems to the boys: Their experience of massive destruction has eroded references and deprived them of values.
Instead of the integration and shared common values illustrated by, among others, the fact that Wren designed both a public place of worship and a private home, the post-war period leaves them with fragmentation and mutual distrust: For him 'All this hate and love [is]soft, it's hooey.
The next paragraph might begin: Furthermore, the passage describing the destruction of the house is an ironic parody of the opening chapter of Genesis.
The vocabulary is similar: Blackie notices that 'chaos had advanced', an ironic reversal of God's imposing of form on a void. Furthermore, the phrase 'streaks of light came in through the closed shutters where they worked with the seriousness of creators', used in the context of destruction, also parodies the creation of light and darkness in the early passages of the Biblical book.
Images and metaphors concerning the individual and community are centred on Trevor, and are also linked to the theme of leadership. Notice that the opening sentence in each paragraph is a strong one. There are several strong points about the first paragraph: The main extended images are mentioned in the first sentence, which is preferable to 'I am now going to discuss the imagery of Graham Greene's story.
Importantly, whilst it is obvious that there is to be some reference to ideas already mentioned, it is also clear that there is to be no repetition. Instead, the analysis is to be deepened and extended. The anxious reader, who might be wondering why the important theme of the individual and the community has not been mentioned, can relax and enjoy the analysis of the religious symbolism in the full knowledge that the former theme has not been neglected.
In other words the writer is actively engaging with Greene's story. What of the second paragraph? Firstly one might ask why a second paragraph is needed, given that the theme is still that of religion. True, but the first paragraph is becoming quite long, it is reaching the 'natural' length of a paragraph.
There are no hard or fast rules and regulations here - no writing committee has decreed that a paragraph should contain an ideal number of words or sentences or run a certain length over a page. Extended writing practice will give you a 'feel' and an instinct for realising that a paragraph is complete and it is time to start a new one. More importantly here there is a very strong sense that the first paragraph in the model is 'full'.
The writer has identified a link between the house and the ideological vacuum in which the gang exist and has tried to interpret and explain it. The theme is still religion, but the writer is now going to approach a different aspect of it.
The third paragraph begins to produce what has been promised: Note how this is done. There is no need to state mechanically that this is the theme that is now to be discussed.
Effective Use of Language
It has already been anticipated and the 'full' nature of the first sentence makes clear what is being discussed. Again, the reader is being clearly led through the arguments in a well structured and thought out manner. One further point, by way of providing another model. The analysis in the second paragraph could lead in the following direction. Greene's ironic use of the vocabulary of the Bible might be making the point that, for him, the Second World War signalled the end of a particular Christian era.
Now, it is perfectly arguable that the rise of fascism is linked to this, or that it is the cause. The cult of personality and secular leadership has, for Greene, taken over from the key role of the church in Western societies.