Tigris–Euphrates river system - Wikipedia
It comprises the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which follow roughly parallel than the Tigris from its mountain basin to the point where it meets the Mesopotamian. The Euphrates river is 3 km long, divided between Turkey (1 km), the The average annual discharge of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers together is. In Halfeti, located on the reservoir created by the Birecik Dam, tourists dine IRAQ. Tigris-Euphrates. river basin. Persian. Gulf. mi. km.
This steppe is characterised by white wormwood Artemisia herba-alba and Chenopodiaceae. Throughout history, this zone has been heavily overgrazed due to the practicing of sheep and goat pastoralism by its inhabitants. This zone supports either no vegetation at all or small pockets of Chenopodiaceae or Poa sinaica.
Although today nothing of it survives due to human interference, research suggests that the Euphrates Valley would have supported a riverine forest. Species characteristic of this type of forest include the Oriental planethe Euphrates poplarthe tamariskthe ash and various wetland plants. Species like gazelleonager and the now-extinct Arabian ostrich lived in the steppe bordering the Euphrates valley, while the valley itself was home to the wild boar.
Carnivorous species include the gray wolfthe golden jackalthe red foxthe leopard and the lion. The Syrian brown bear can be found in the mountains of Southeast Turkey. The presence of European beaver has been attested in the bone assemblage of the prehistoric site of Abu Hureyra in Syria, but the beaver has never been sighted in historical times.
Dams in IraqTabqa Damand Southeastern Anatolia Project Map in French showing the locations of dams and barrages built in the Syro — Turkish part of the Euphrates basin The Hindiya Barrage on the Iraqi Euphrates, based on plans by British civil engineer William Willcocks and finished inwas the first modern water diversion structure built in the Tigris—Euphrates river system. Below Al-Kifl, Al-Hindiyyah, which previously was uncontrollable and tended to dissipate itself in marshes, has been regulated and now supports large-scale rice production.
Several major irrigation, drainage, and desalinization projects were halted by the Iran-Iraq War in the s, the Persian Gulf War —91and the subsequent trade embargo on Iraq during the s. There were also disruptions of those functions during the Iraq War — In Baghdad and its environs, artificial embankments line the Tigris. At Al-Qurnah, the principal channel joins the Euphrates, fed by the outflow of those same marshlands, to form the Shatt al-Arab. The Karkheh River is a minor left-bank tributary from Iran.
The agricultural belt along the Shatt al-Arab, no more than 3 miles 5 km wide on either side, is the richest area of date palm cultivation in the world.
Irrigation occurs when high tide in the Persian Gulf forces the fresh water of the river to back up and overflow into creek beds. Hydrology The regime of the Tigris and Euphrates depends heavily on winter rains and spring snowmelt in the Taurus and Zagros mountains. The rate of evaporation on the river has increased to as much as 50 percent with the creation of large reservoirs and related irrigation areas behind a number of dams.
The precipitous flow of its tributaries makes the Tigris more susceptible than the Euphrates to short-term flooding, and its short length brings its annual flood period a month earlier.
Those estimates are roughly twice the values calculated for the Euphrates. In flood time the two rivers together carry as much as three million tons of eroded material from the highlands in a single day.
Climate The Tigris and Euphrates make habitable and productive one of the harshest environments in the world. Precipitation is light in the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates but increases considerably at higher elevations in their source areas. In the higher elevations, where the rivers have their upper courses, winter winds are light and variable. Much of the precipitation falls as snow, which can lie in some places for half the year. During winter, the mean temperature in the mountains is well below freezing, so that agriculture comes to a halt and communications are restricted.
The mounting flow is augmented in their middle courses by seasonal rainfall, which reaches its peak between March and May. In the lower courses of the rivers in the alluvial plain, rain can be torrential in winter but usually does not exceed 8 inches mm per year. Humidity in most areas is as low as 15 percent. Dust storms, which occur throughout the year, are especially frequent in the summer.
Most wind-borne dust consists of particles of clay and silt mixed with minute fragments of shell, which are from a remnant dune belt that has been formed from abandoned irrigated fields and dried-up marshes in the area between the two rivers. Only occasionally are there true sandstorms, bearing material from the western desert.
Plant life In ancient times, oak, pistachio, and ash forests covered the mountains and foothills through which the upper Tigris and Euphrates pass. New plantings, particularly in Turkey, supplement the scattered remnants of those forests today.
In the steppe zone to the south of the mountains, some vegetation can flourish year-round, but the growing season in most nonirrigated areas is quite brief; the wildflowers and other plants that appear in spring die off in the heat of May and June. In the driest zones, camel thorn and prosopis are the dominant shrubs.
The densest communities of plants exist along the rivers and in the marshes. Various reeds and the narrow-leaved cattail are abundant, and the giant mardi reedwhich reaches a height of up to 25 feet 8 metreshas been used as a versatile construction material since antiquity.
The Euphrates poplar and a species of willow grow in small belts beside the rivers and canals; the poplar provides strong timber for construction and boat building, as well as handles for tools. The date palm is indigenous to the region. Five-stamen tamarisk and mesquite form thickets along the lower and middle courses of the Tigris and its tributaries, up to an elevation of about 3, feet 1, metres.
Licorice is sufficiently plentiful to allow exports. Animal life Wild pigs are common in the marshes and have spread into newly planted eucalyptus groves in other parts of the alluvial plain.
Jackals, hyenas, and mongooses are found along the rivers in southern Iraq, and a large variety of Indian jungle cat reportedly still inhabits remote tamarisk thickets.
Lions were last sighted along the Tigris in In the s, this ecoregion was put in grave danger as the Iran—Iraq War raged within its boundaries. The wetlands of Iraq, which were inhabited by the Marsh Arabswere almost completely dried out, and have only recently[ when? In addition, Syrian and Iranian dam construction has also contributed to political tension within the basin, particularly during drought.
General description[ edit ] Marsh Arabs poling a mashoof in the marshes of southern Iraq The general climate of the region is subtropical, hot and arid. At the northern end of the Persian Gulf is the vast floodplain of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Karun Rivers, featuring huge permanent lakes, marshes, and forest.
Tigris river - All About Turkey
The aquatic vegetation includes reedsrushesand papyruswhich support numerous species. Areas around the Tigris and the Euphrates are very fertile. Marshy land is home to water birds, some stopping here while migrating, and some spending the winter in these marshes living off the lizards, snakes, frogs, and fish.
Other animals found in these marshes are water buffalotwo endemic rodent species, antelopes and gazelles and small animals such as the jerboa and several other mammals. Play media This visualization shows variations in total water storage from normal, in millimeters, in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins, from January through December Reds represent drier conditions, while blues represent wetter conditions.
The effects of the seasons are evident, as is the major drought that hit the region in The majority of the water lost was due to reductions in groundwater caused by human activities.Water level drops dramatically in Iraq's Tigris river
Iraq suffers from desertification and soil salination due in large part to thousands of years of agricultural activity. Water and plant life are sparse.