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Difference Between Assyrian and Babylonian | Difference Between | Assyrian vs Babylonian

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For the next two centuries Assyria and Babylon co-existed. . made peace with them by giving his daughter in marriage to the Scythian chief Bartuta. With the advice of a defecting Greek general, Cambyses was able to get Bedouin help in. The ancient Assyrians came to dominate their region, but their success had a lot to do with their environment. In this lesson, we'll explore. What was it like to be an ancient Assyrian? In this lesson, learn about the daily lives of ancient Assyrians, including their housing, food, work.

Citizens in the lower class had more options for occupations, but less respect and pay and more labor.

Ancient Assyria: Religion, Death & Burial |

They had positions that kept the society running smoothly, like shop and tavern workers, who would be employed by the merchants or tavern owners; farmers; construction workers, who built houses and canals, among other things; and artisans, who did leather and jewelry working.

While men held most of these positions, regardless of class, women could actually hold some of these jobs as well. Time to Eat The ancient Assyrians may not have had the wide array of food we have available today, but they had a decent variety of fruits, vegetables, meat, and other foods. One of their most important supplies was the grain barley, so it is not surprising that the Assyrians were some of the first to make and drink beer. In addition to barley, the Assyrians also grew tree fruits like dates, apples, and plums, and vegetables like carrots, lettuce, and beets.

For protein, they relied on fish and wild game obtained through hunting, as well as livestock they raised - typically goats and pigs. Life at Home The homes of the ancient Assyrians also varied by social class. Envoys demanded of Macedonia's Amyntas earth and water, the sign of submission, and he complied. Darius appointed his brother Artaphrenes satrap in Sardis to oversee the Greek cities of Ionia, and he replaced Megabazus with Otanes, who controlled the grain trade through the straits, cutting off the Scythians from Greek art treasures, Milesian business, and threatening the food supply of the European Greeks.

Megabazus strengthened this blockade by capturing the islands of Lemnos and Imbros. Most of the men in Miletus were killed, and the women and children were enslaved. The next spring Chios, Lesbos, and Tenedos were taken along with mainland cities. Handsome boys were made eunuchs, and beautiful girls were put in the royal harem.

Cities and temples were burned. Only the historian Hecataeus, who had opposed the revolt, was spared. The Ionian cities that had been allowed local autonomy before were now brought under imperial administration.

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Private wars between cities were no longer allowed but were arbitrated. A census was taken, and the taxation imposed on the weakened cities was burdensome. Darius appointed his son-in-law Mardonius, who according to Herodotus, ejected irresponsible despots from Ionian cities and set up democracies. The Persians took gold-rich Thasos even though it had not been hostile, after which much of the Persian fleet and over 20, men were destroyed by a storm off Athos.

At the same time a Thracian tribe of Brygi inflicted heavy losses on the Persian army on land while wounding Mardonius, who eventually subdued them before retreating to Asia. In BC Darius sent envoys to Greek cities demanding the earth and water of submission. The trading island of Aegina cooperated, but Sparta and Athens were determined to resist. The Persian attack was led by Datis. When the people of Naxos fled to the interior, the city was burned.

Eretrians were divided but decided only to defend themselves, not to attack. After the Persians had assaulted Eretria for six days, two democrats betrayed the city, hoping their party would gain power; but the Persians made the moral mistake of destroying the temples and enslaving the people.

This stimulated the Athenians to attack the Persians on the plain of Marathon, defeating them so badly that the Persians fled for home. In Egyptwhere graft had been rampant, Darius instituted a new code of laws.

Suffering under a heavy Persian garrison and severe taxes, Egyptians complained that the great building projects in Persepolis, Susa, and Ecbatana had been financed by Egyptian wealth. The Egyptian satrap Aryandes was executed for violating Persian coining laws, probably for melting down royal coins with the King's image and selling the bullion at an enormous profit, which was considered treason. Upset by the heavy taxation imposed to raise money for the war against Greece, in BC a revolt erupted in Egypt and was soon followed by the death of Darius.

His oldest son by Queen Atossa, Xerxes, who had been administering Babylon as viceroy for twelve years, became king of the Persians and the Medes and spent his first royal year putting down the Egyptian revolt. Xerxes inflicted more severe treatment than his predecessors had there and also in Babylon after their satrap Zopyrus was killed in a revolt in BC that was ruthlessly defeated. Not only were the Babylonian fortifications demolished and the temples destroyed, but the great, solid-gold statue of Marduk was removed and melted down.

No longer could anyone take the hand of Bel to show their divine-approved rulership at the Babylonian New Year's festival.

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Babylon was incorporated into the Assyrian satrapy, which had to provide a thousand talents of silver and boys for eunuchs. Even the name Babylonian was banned, and after this time they were known as Chaldeans. Urged on by the war party led by Mardonius, Xerxes amassed a huge army formed from 46 nations and commanded by 29 Persian generals to launch an attack against Greece.

Gold raiment marked the 10, immortals, elite Persian and Median soldiers allowed to bring their concubines and servants on the march. Half of the Persian imperial army was used—aboutmen. So confident were they that when they caught three men in Sardis spying for the Greek allies, they showed them the vast army and let them go make their report.

However, the Persians suffered losses when they met determined resistance from Spartans at the Thermopylae pass, though eventually the Spartans were killed. The Thebans surrendered and were branded. The army of Xerxes then burned deserted Plataea and Thespiae before entering Athens and burning the acropolis. In the major naval battle at Salamis the imperial navy lost ships, the Greek allies only Xerxes reacted by executing the Phoenician captains, causing the Phoenicians and Egyptians to go home.

Xerxes then went back to Sardis, leaving Mardonius in command. At Plataea both armies had been promised victory by seers if they stayed on the defensive. Mardonius refused to retire and use bribery.

When the allies were withdrawing, which might have broken up the coalition, the Persians attacked, causing the desperate Greeks to fight. Mardonius himself entered the battle and was slain along with his guard of a thousand Persians.

This and news of the Persian defeat at the island of Mycale caused the imperial army to withdraw from Europe. Xerxes retired to his harem and used bribery and diplomacy to try to win over the Greeks, who formed the Delian league led by Athens which attacked Thrace in BC, driving Persian imperialism out of Europe except at Doriscus. Xerxes in his romantic affairs aroused the jealousy of the Queen, who at the New Year's feast requested the woman be mutilated.

The victim's family fled and was going to raise a revolt, but they were overtaken and killed. Another Achaemenid prince violated a virgin from a prominent family and was ordered to circumnavigate Africa; but when he returned without matching the Phoenician feat, he was impaled. In BC two hundred Greek ships invaded Caria and shot arrows into besieged Phasaelis, persuading them to pay ten talents and join the war to liberate Greek cities.

Xerxes sent a navy, but eighty ships were delayed at Cyprus and captured after the battle at the Eurymedon. In BC Xerxes was assassinated in the royal bedchamber by a conspiracy led by Artabanus, Megabyzus, and the eunuch chamberlain Aspamitres.

Artabanus was able to persuade year-old Artaxerxes that his older brother Darius, who hated Xerxes for seducing his wife, had killed their father, causing Artaxerxes to murder his brother Darius.

When Artabanus tried to get rid of Artaxerxes, he was betrayed by Megabyzus and killed after wounding the young King. The eunuch Aspamitres was tortured to death. Hystaspis, another brother of the new King, revolted in Bactria and was defeated by Artaxerxes, who then made sure that all his brothers were killed. Artaxerxes ruled the Persian empire for forty years, collecting annual taxes that totaled about 10, talents plus nearly half as much again from India.

Little value from this ever went back to the satrapies that provided it except in payment to imperial soldiers from their countries. Many revolts resulted from this oppression. The satrap Achaemenes was killed, and most of Memphis was taken. While this revolt continued, Ezra was given permission by Artaxerxes to take the written law of the Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem. Persian money aided Sparta in defeating Athens at Tanagra in BC, and a pacified Judah allowed safe passage of the Persian army led by Syrian satrap Megabyzus on its way to Egypt, where it drove the Athenians out of Memphis, capturing 6, Greeks.

Inaros and the Greeks were taken to Persia, and several years later the Queen ordered him and fifty Greeks executed. Some Greeks were still holding out in the Nile Delta when Cimon of Athens attacked Cyprus with ships, but the Persians successfully resisted this and the ships that were sent to Egypt. In BC a peace treaty was made between Athens and Persia which confirmed what had been the situation before the long war. Persia acknowledged the autonomy of the Greek cities in Asia while the Athenians renounced attempts to liberate others there as long as the Persian King would recognize the autonomy of his vassal Greek cities and their low tribute amount from before the war.

A demilitarized zone was proclaimed around the borders between the two empires. Athens also agreed not to support rebellions in Egypt and Libya. However, when the Queen had the Greeks and Inaros executed, Megabyzus, upset that his pledge had been violated, revolted in Syria.

After redeeming his honor in two victories against the empire, Megabyzus agreed to return to loyalty provided he remain satrap. This Syrian revolt may have stimulated rebellious feelings in Jerusalem, where the walls were being rebuilt. Artaxerxes ordered this building stopped and the work destroyed; but later his cupbearer Nehemiah with the help of wine persuaded the King to allow him to go to Jerusalem to rebuild the city, and Nehemiah was even given an armed guard for his journey. Herodotus recited his History in Athens in BC, as Pericles made a thirty years' peace with Sparta and moved toward challenging the Persian empire by accepting a large present of gold and grain from Libyan rebel Psamtik and establishing tribute districts from cities in Caria, Ionia, Hellespont, and the islands.

When democratic Miletus appealed to Athens after having been defeated by oligarchic Samos, Pericles in BC sent an expedition to re-establish the democracy. The oligarchs driven out turned to Pissouthnes, the satrap of Sardis, who allowed mercenaries to be hired to recover the island and capture the Greek garrison for the satrap.

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Samos, however, was taken over by the Athenians when Phoenician ships failed to defend it. Thus the peace treaty was broken. Persia regained some cities, and Pericles countered with imperial gains in the Black Sea area.

Megabyzus, who on a hunt had saved Artaxerxes from a charging lion, was exiled for killing an animal before his master; his son Zopyrus, aided by Athenians, assaulted Caunus and was killed.

Megabyzus eventually was invited back to the King's table; but when he died, his wife Amytis, the King's sister, became the mistress of a Greek physician, who, when it was discovered, was buried alive for polluting the royal blood, Amytis dying the same day.

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Jews complained of the Persian taxes, but Nehemiah, who as governor was supported by the imperial bureaucracy, blamed the rich Jews and said he loaned money without interest. Nehemiah's criticism of the wealthy probably led to his recall by Artaxerxes in BC, but he returned to Jerusalem again to institute reforms such as forbidding commerce on the Sabbath. Meanwhile a plague spread from Ethiopia through Egypt and into Athens and the Persian empire that further oppressed the overtaxed.

The Persian court sent the great beauty Thargelia and courtesans to gather information from lusty Athenian statesmen. When Artaxerxes and his Queen died on the same day in BC, Xerxes II became King but was killed a month and a half later while sleeping after heavy drinking at a festival.

Secydianus, the assassin, was a son of Artaxerxes by a Babylonian concubine; but he was replaced by a different Babylonian concubine's son, who raised an army in Babylon and declared himself Darius II, promising Secydianus half the kingdom but half a year later causing his death; other conspirators in the assassination of the King were put to death or committed suicide.

His sister and wife Parysatis became an influential queen especially on behalf of Cyrus, who was the next son born to them. Darius II began by renewing the treaty with the Athenians, but continued imperial taxation caused more fields to go out of cultivation and only be used for grazing.

Governing Sardis now, Tissaphernes started collecting taxes from the Greek cities and offered to support Spartan troops in Asia. Persia signed a treaty with Sparta through Tissaphernes, agreeing to wage war together against Athens. However, in Sparta politicians refused to ratify a treaty that recognized Persian territory that had belonged to ancestors of the Persian King. Meanwhile the Athenian Alcibiades, who had gone over to the Spartan side, persuaded Tissaphernes to delay most payments to the Spartans because a triumphant Sparta would challenge Persian imperialism.

In a third treaty Sparta acknowledged Persian taxes in Asia while excluding them from Europe and the islands, and Tissaphernes agreed to pay for Spartan ships.

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Miletus and Cnidus reacted to this Spartan abandonment by driving the Persian garrisons out. Darius II had to contend with a revolt by the Medes which he put down and palace intrigues that included a eunuch who tried to make himself king but failed. In Egypt a revolt was motivated by the desire to destroy the Jewish temple at Elephantine that was offensive because of its animal sacrifices.

The Queen got her year-old son Cyrus appointed commander of the Persian forces in Asia Minor, and he began paying Sparta what had been promised; but he kept the Spartan general Callicratidas waiting two days while he drank. Cyrus also had two sons of the King's sister executed for showing their hands in his presence. Recalled to his ill father, Cyrus turned his money over to Lysander; this enabled the Spartans to win the battle at Aegospotami and cut off grain supplies from Russia, starving Athens into surrender in BC.

Artaxerxes II began his rule by cruelly executing Udiastes for having assassinated Teriteuchmes. Cyrus was caught plotting to murder the new King at his coronation; but their mother pleaded for her favorite, and Cyrus was allowed to return to his satrapy. Cyrus was able to win over the Ionian cities abandoned by the Spartans except for Miletus, which was held by Tissaphernes after they banished their aristocrats. The exiles were received by Pharnabazus, giving Cyrus a reason to gather an army that included 13, Greek mercenaries to besiege Miletus.

As Cyrus and his army headed east, the mercenaries demanded more money. At Cunaxa near Babylon Cyrus met the Persian army that might otherwise have been used to reconquer Egypt. Cyrus wounded Artaxerxes but was then killed. The next year the Queen-mother Parysatis poisoned Queen Stateira and was banished to her native Babylon, but later the forgiving Artaxerxes recalled his mother. Tissaphernes succeeded Cyrus as margrave of Anatolia, but ungrateful Sparta, roused by accounts of the ten thousand mercenaries' escape from Persia, sent Thibron to liberate Asian Greek cities.

He incorporated into his army the mercenaries, who had made it to the Black Sea after their generals were killed. Accused of allowing his troops to plunder their allies, Thibron was replaced by Dercylidas, who made a truce with Tissaphernes and attacked Pharnabazus. He was supported by the Dardanian widow Mania and her Greek mercenaries until she was murdered by her son-in-law Meidias.

He allied himself with Spartan Dercylidas and used Mania's treasure to pay 8, soldiers for a year. The Spartan army plundered Bithynia, and agreeing to another truce, Pharnabazus returned to the King to urge a naval war. Five hundred ships were to be built at Cyprus and put under the command of Athenian Admiral Conon and the satrap. The Spartans marched into Caria, but Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus joined together to defend it and then attacked Ionia; then these two satraps and Dercylidas agreed to a truce for a year.

In BC Spartan King Agesilaus himself arrived, and after a three-month truce which enabled Tissaphernes to send for reinforcements, he was ordered to leave Asia. With Caria defended, Agesilaus invaded Phrygia and captured towns of Pharnabazus, whose attacks were avoided by using captives as screens. While Pharnabazus sent Persian money to stir up rebellion against Sparta in Europe, Agesilaus defeated Tissaphernes and captured their camels, the Greeks plundering much unprotected land.

Forgiven and plotting once again, Parysatis arranged to have Tithraustes sent to murder Tissaphernes, which was accomplished by Ariaios and his men. Since Agesilaus would not leave Asia without instructions from home, Tithraustes gave him 30 talents to invade Pharnabazus' satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia again.

Pharnabazus reacted by confiscating the property of Tissaphernes and giving talents to the Athenian Conon. Tithraustes provided another talents to his generals Ariaios and Pasiphernes for diplomatic maneuvering. By these bribes and diplomatic machinations the Greek cities of Asia were garrisoned by Persian money. Conon had to fight off mercenaries at Cyprus and then went to the winter palace at Babylon to get funds from Artaxerxes II.

After ravaging Phrygia, Agesilaus was recalled to Sparta; he said it was because of the King's ten thousand golden archers, by which he meant the gold coins used for diplomacy. Obviously we know more about this west side of the Persian empire and these long wars because of Greek sources; yet the lack of business documents in this period may be because of the devastation and looting in these wars which accomplished little except destruction.

The old alliance of Persia and Athens established democracies in numerous Asian cities under the auspices of the Persian empire. Only Abydos and Sestos resisted. The Persians and Athenians even ravaged European Laconia and established a Persian garrison on the island of Cythera, threatening the Peloponnese.

The allies at Corinth were given money, and the walls of Athens were rebuilt by Conon. However, the new satrap of Sardis from Armenia, Tiribazus, now feared the Athenian Empire and had Conon imprisoned and secretly gave money to Antalcidas to build up the Spartan navy. At a peace conference in Sparta, representatives of Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos agreed on a treaty, but Athens rejected it by denouncing and banishing their delegates.

At the same time Tiribazus was replaced by Struthas as satrap of Ionia, and he sided with Athens against Sparta. Thibron returned from Ephesus and resumed the war; but he was slain by Struthas at a discus game, and his army was devastated by the Persian cavalry. However, Thibron's successor Diphridas held some cities loyal to Sparta and got money for mercenaries by ransoming the daughter of Struthas and her husband Tigranes. In all this confusion many rulers showed their independence by issuing coins, including Euagoras of Cyprus, Milkyaton of Citium, Hecatomnus of Caria, and Autophradates of Lycia.

Autophradates and Hecatomnus were ordered to put down the rebellion of Euagoras while the Spartan governor of Abydos regained Aeolian cities from Pharnabazus. Athenians assisted Euagoras and replaced Milkyaton and his coins. Athens even allied itself with Egyptstimulating Artaxerxes to change sides again and to replace both Autophradates and Struthas with the pro-Spartan Tiribazus. Sparta responded by sending Antalcidas from Ephesus to Susa to meet the King.

Then Tiribazus and Antalcidas used Spartan and Syracusan fleets to destroy the Athenians guarding the Hellespont, threatening Athens with the same starvation that ended the Peloponnesian War seventeen years before. Delegates soon gathered at Sardis in BC and agreed to the King's Peace named after Antalcidas in which Persia retained the cities in Asia and the islands of Clazomenae and Cyprus, except that Lemnos, Lesbos, and Scyros would belong to Athens as they had before.

The Persian empire had lost Egyptbut they had retained Asia. Imperial taxation was still oppressive, stimulating many revolts and uprisings by workers that were often put down by local tyrants while newly minted coins indicated a growing wealthy class and economic development.

Barred by the peace treaty from helping Cyprus, Athenian mercenaries led by Chabrias went to defend Egyptwhich thus was able to resist for three years and turn away the long delayed Persian invasion to regain Egypt while Euagoras of Cyprus allied himself with Egypt and invaded Cilicia and Phoenicia, capturing Tyre.

With the help of pirates, Euagoras tried to cut off their food, causing a mutiny by the Ionian mercenaries which was put down; but after losing a naval battle Euagoras had to submit, asking to be treated as a king, which was denied in BC, the same year Isocrates tried and failed to raise a crusade against the Persians at the Olympic games. When Pharnabazus complained that Chabrias' mercenary activity in Egypt violated the treaty, Athens recalled him on pain of death.

Though Tiribazus was winning over mercenaries with money, the rivalry of Aroandas caused Artaxerxes II to have Tiribazus arrested; but Aroandas had to accept the terms of Euagoras at Cyprus that Tiribazus had rejected. The Cadusian revolt was so nearby that Artaxerxes took the field himself; after much suffering, a peace was made, and the Persian King only escaped on foot.

Out of this frustration Artaxerxes had several nobles executed for disloyalty. With Cyprus settled, Pharnabazus prepared to invade Egypt again and enlisted Athenian General Iphicrates to lead the Greek mercenaries. Three years later Artaxerxes imposed another treaty on the Greeks and with the younger Dionysius of Syracuse.

By BC Pharnabazus had gathered triremes, 12, Greeks, and countless Persians and easterners to invade Egypt. They landed on the Delta; but unable to take Memphis, they had to retreat from the flooding Nile to Asia.

A year later Jason of Pherae, who united Thessaly and aimed at conquering Persia, was assassinated. The King's money was also used to contribute to the famed oracle at Delphi, but Thebes still refused to accept the imperial terms.

Within the Persian empire revolts led by Datames and Ariobarzanes were breaking out. When Aroandas felt he had been demoted from Armenia to Mysia, he accepted the leadership of the coalition of revolting satraps. Ordered to send tribute, Mausolus merely collected more money for himself.

Aroandas' presence in Syria stimulated more rebellions there and among Lycians, Pisidians, Pamphylians, and Cilicians; even Autophradates joined him, and Artabazus was imprisoned. The Persian empire had lost half its revenues. Djedhor, the new king of Egypt in BC, known to the Greeks as Tachos, seized on this opportunity, and with the help of rivals Agesilaus of Sparta and Chabrias of Athens he joined the revolted satraps and invaded Palestine and Phoenicia.

However, his brother in Egypt used resentment against taxes to put forth as king of Egypt his son Nekht-har-hebi, who had joined the satrap revolt in Syria. All kinds of rebellions were breaking out, and Nekht-har-hebi was forced by the feudal chiefs to abandon Asian conquest and return to Egyptwhere he was saved from a siege by Agesilaus; but when his uncle Tachos was captured by the Persian prince Ochus and died on his return to Egypt to be a vassal king for Artaxerxes, Nekht-har-hebi ended up ruling Egypt from to BC.

All this enabled the army of Artaxerxes to slowly advance and cross the Euphrates, and Aroandes, abandoned by the Egyptians, returned to loyalty and surrendered the other rebels with him. Autophradates also freed Artabazus and came to terms with the empire. Then Aroandes and Artabazus fought the mercenaries, and Datames was eventually murdered at a conference of the revolting satraps by Mithridates, who had also betrayed his own father Ariobarzanes to crucifixion.

Darius, the oldest son of Artaxerxes II by Queen Stateira, was executed for plotting with fifty of the King's sons by concubines to kill their father.

Ochus, the youngest son of the queen, persuaded his only other brother of the queen to take poison, because he thought his father was angry at him. Arsames, another son, beloved by Artaxerxes for his wisdom, was also murdered, and the King soon died of grief in BC after ruling the Persian empire for 45 years.

Ochus became Artaxerxes III and ruthlessly had his relatives killed regardless of age or sex.

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He ordered the satraps in Asia Minor to get rid of their mercenaries, causing Artabazus to revolt and appeal to Athens when an army of 20, was raised against him in Phrygia. Artabazus got 5, mercenaries from Thebes, but sensing treachery from agents bribed by the King, he fled to Philip in Macedonia. Aroandes, who had joined his revolt, held out for a while in Lydia but eventually came to terms again.

Mausolus, whose magnificent funeral sculptures in Halicarnassus his wealth financed, coined the word "mausoleum" and died in BC. Ochus spent a year campaigning in Egyptbut once again the Persian army had to retire in BC. However, seven years later as the captives taken at Sidon entered Babylon and Susa, Egypt finally fell to the Persian reconquest that was supported by 10, Greek mercenaries. Nekht-har-hebi retreated to Ethiopia and claimed to rule from there. The Greeks and Persians fought over the spoils, and Ochus carried off the leading Egyptians to Persia.

In BC while Philip of Macedonia was on his way to defeating the Athenians and Thebans at Charoneia, Ochus was poisoned by his physician by order of the eunuch Bagoas. Arses, the son of Ochus, became king and refused to pay reparations to Philip for Persia's having helped Perinthus.

So Philip led a Greek crusade to liberate all the Greek cities under Persian domination. Arses tried to poison Bagoas but was poisoned himself, and all his children were killed. Bagoas found a year-old Achaemenid noble remaining he made Darius III but, trying to poison him too, had at last to drink his own brew. Philip's assassination was blamed on the King of Persia by his son Alexander. In BC Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont into Asia at the same place Xerxes' army had come the other way years before.

The Greeks won a narrow victory over the Persian army at Granicus. Persians who surrendered were sent home, but Alexander had most of the captured Greek mercenaries slaughtered, sending the rest to Macedonia as slaves.

Myths of Babylonia and Assyria, 1 (Legends from Babylon, Sumeria, etc.) Audiobook

Halicarnassus was burned during a siege. Alexander replaced the Persian satrap, general, and treasurer of each conquered province with Macedonians. At Issus the Greeks met the army of Darius, who fled. Parmenio then took Damascus, the Persian baggage train, and the rest of the royal family. The Phoenician cities surrendered to the Greeks except Tyre, which was destroyed after a seven-month siege. After taking Gaza, where he was wounded, Alexander was welcomed by the Egyptians glad to be rid of the hated Persians.

The two armies met again at Gaugamela in BC, and once again Darius deserted his army.

Ancient Assyria: Religion, Death & Burial

Alexander entered Babylon and ordered the temple of Bel that had been destroyed by Xerxes rebuilt. The major capital of Susa surrendered to the Greeks without resisting, and the immense treasure accumulated by the Persian empire was found in the palace.

Alexander began to train Persians by his new military methods. More treasure was found at the other main capital at Persepolis, where the men were killed, the women were enslaved, and the city was burned, perhaps in revenge for the burning of Athens in BC. Alexander then went east in pursuit of the viceroy of Bactria who had imprisoned Darius. By BC Darius was dead, and Alexander ruled over his former empire. Uncooperative satraps were punished, and others were retained by Alexanderwho founded numerous cities named after himself.

Two years were spent in putting down the resistance of the Sogdians in the north. Alexander went as far as India before his troops demanded to return; by BC they were back in Susa. Alexander married the daughter of Darius III and had 10, of his men marry Persian girls, hoping to breed an army for his new empire. He was already treating Persians equally with Greeks and using them in his army, and the Persian nobility was being educated by Greek teachers.

The Persian treasure was coined as money and distributed. Warned that if he entered Babylon he would die, Alexander finally did and succumbed to an illness or was poisoned in BC.

The immense empire was divided and ruled by the Greek generals of the armies that had conquered it. The Persian empire was no more, and the Hellenistic era had begun. Warned that if he entered Babylon he would die, Alexander finally did and succumbed to an illness in BC. The immense empire was divided and ruled by the Greek generals of the armies who had conquered it. Later Roman imperialism impinged on the western part of the Mideast. His revolt began in the north, and by BC he controlled the kingdom called Parthia, invading and annexing Hyrcania.

Late in his reign, the Middle Assyrian Empire erupted into civil war, when a rebellion was orchestrated by Tukulti-Mer, a pretender to the throne of Assyria. Ashur-bel-kala eventually crushed Tukulti-Mer and his allies, however the civil war in Assyria had allowed hordes of Arameans to take advantage of the situation, and press in on Assyrian controlled territory from the west.

Ashur-bel-kala counterattacked them, and conquered as far as Carchemish and the source of the Khabur riverbut by the end of his reign many of the areas of Syria and Phoenicia-Canaan to the west of these regions as far as the Mediterranean, previously under firm Assyrian control, were eventually lost to the Assyrian Empire.

Society and law in the Middle Assyrian Period[ edit ] Assyrian quartet.

Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, and Persian Empires

The Middle Assyrian kingdom was well organized, and in the firm control of the king, who also functioned as the High Priest of Ashurthe state god. He had certain obligations to fulfill in the cult, and had to provide resources for the temples. The priesthood became a major power in Assyrian society. Conflicts with the priesthood are thought to have been behind the murder of king Tukulti-Ninurta I. The Middle Assyrian Period was marked by the long wars fought that helped build Assyria into a warrior society.

The king depended on both the citizen class and priests in his capital, and the landed nobility who supplied the horses needed by Assyria's military. Documents and letters illustrate the importance of the latter to Assyrian society. Assyria needed less artificial irrigation than Babylonia, and horse-breeding was extensive. Portions of elaborate texts about the care and training of them have been found. Trade was carried out in all directions. The mountain country to the north and west of Assyria was a major source of metal ore, as well as lumber.

Economic factors were a common casus belli. All free male citizens were obliged to serve in the army for a time, a system which was called the ilku-service. A legal code was produced during the 14th and 13th centuries which, among other things, clearly shows that the social position of women in Assyria was lower than that of neighbouring societies.