The Battles of Fromelles and Pozières - Battle Scenes
There is some debate about the smoothness of relations between the Australian troops and the British troops. Although some Australians went to war with a. When Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August , most Australians The development of machine-guns and artillery favoured defence over attack and . Life & relationships · Health & wellness · Fashion · Beauty · Horoscopes Why did British and French empire forces invade Gallipoli? and Fishermans Hut where Anzac Cove is centrally located - was covered by 32 Turkish guns. The Australian and British crew of 32 were taken as prisoners of war.
Soldiers stepped from the duckboards up to the fire step, in order to fire over the breastworks Your browser does not support the audio element. Audio transcript The trench periscope was an optical device used during the First World War to observe the ground in front of the trenches without taking the risk of becoming a target for enemy snipers. Early trench periscopes were made by installing two mirrors at degree angles at either end of a long box or tube.
During the winter ofsoldiers on the front lines began to use these improvised box periscopes, also known as hyposcopes. As the use grew more widespread, British Army workshops behind the front lines started the manufacture of trench periscopes in mid Audio transcript At dawn on Wednesday 19th July the British 61st and the Australian 5th Division began the move into the trenches of the British Front Line, ready to attack the 6th Bavarian Reserve Division in their well-entrenched positions to the west of Fromelles and Aubers village.
From General Haking's note to infantry troops, describing the order of battle following the heavy bombardment by artillery of German positions: The objective will be strictly limited to the enemy's support trenches and no more. Audio transcript Barbed wire was a primary form of defence in trench warfare, especially effective against patrols and infantry assaults.
Trenches could be haphazardly covered with barbed wire across their open tops, providing a vicious foil to attack, and rows of wire-strewn fence polls were a common sight in front of the trench lines on both sides of no man's land.
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Once caught up in barbed wire a soldier could be made a helpless target for enemy fire or could be taken prisoner. Wiring parties were regularly sent out into no man's land at night to repair wire or lay down new barriers.
Soldiers would drive stakes into the ground using rubber mallets and blankets to muffle the sound and then unspool and string up the wire as quietly as possible, while frequently having to remain completely still when flares intermittently illuminated the landscape or dive for cover if the enemy fired on them. Laying a segment of wire under such conditions could take several hours.
Allied Artillery Your browser does not support the audio element. Audio transcript On the Western Front, the success or failure of a major infantry attack was tied completely to the success or failure of the supporting artillery.
In the early stage of an attack, artillery had two roles: Firstly, to destroy obstacles such as barbed-wire protecting enemy trenches and fortified enemy positions including machine-guns and trenches.
And secondly, to suppress the enemy's defensive firepower, both its artillery and infantry. Audio transcript Artillery bombardment would, in the war's early years, often last for days, intensifying in the hours before an attack in an attempt to cause maximum destruction and disorientation among the enemy as soldiers went over the top and charged across No Man's Land.
As the infantry began their assault, the gunners would lift the range of their firing to target behind the enemy's front line trenches, cutting them off from support. Gunners would also create 'box barrages,' a defensive shield of artillery fire that surrounded newly captured positions, preventing counter attacks from forming, while the infantry secured their gains, or in the case of a raid, made their escape. Audio transcript Many factors were at play in the success or failure of an artillery barrage.
The level of the gunners' experience, the maintenance and age of their artillery pieces, the quality of their ammunition, the efficiency of communication with the forward areas. Accurate spotting both by observers working with the infantry and by airmen; the development of techniques such as 'sound ranging' that pinpointed the location of enemy batteries, and distance from the front, were all deciding factors.
Infantrymen had not only to fear accurate enemy artillery fire, but also "drop short" rounds, referred to today as "friendly fire. Audio transcript At the Battle of Fromelles, the concentration of artillery was substantial -one gun for every 8 metres of front. Despite this density, the Australian 5th Division's gunners were inexperienced, and had had limited training.
This was their first Western Front battle. The barrage leading up to and during the day of battle failed to destroy some of the key targets including the heavily fortified Sugarloaf salient.
Audio transcript From left to right, the types of field artillery used at the Battle of Fromelles included 64 4. Each gun had a different range, which dictated their proximity to the front. The range of guns determined the depth to which infantry could advance.
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Once they reached the limit of their own guns' range, they had to wait for the artillery to be brought forward before an attack could resume. Guns were towed with their ammunition supplies by a limber and a team of usually six to eight horses. Volunteers rushed to enlist for an exciting war which was expected to be over by Christmas.
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For Australia, as for many nations, the First World War remains the most costly conflict in terms of deaths and casualties. From a population of fewer than five million,men enlisted, of which over 60, were killed andwounded, gassed, or taken prisoner. Most of the men accepted into the army in August were sent first to Egypt, not Europe, to meet the threat Turkey posed to British interests in the Middle East and the Suez Canal. During the early days of the campaign, the allies tried to break through Turkish lines, while the Turks tried to drive the allied troops off the peninsula.Aussies v Germans, WW1
Attempts on both sides ended in failure and the ensuing stalemate continued for the remainder of The most successful operation of the campaign was the evacuation of troops on 19 and 20 December, under cover of a comprehensive deception operation.
As a result, the Turks were unable to inflict more than a very few casualties on the retreating forces. Therefore rest in peace. There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side here in this country of ours. You, the mothers who sent their sons from far away countries, wipe away your tears. Your sons are now lying in our bosom and are in peace. After having lost their lives on this land, they have become our sons as well.
When the AIF divisions arrived in France, the war on the Western Front had long settled into a stalemate, with the opposing armies facing each other from trench systems that extended across Belgium and north-east France, from the English Channel to the Swiss border.
The development of machine-guns and artillery favoured defence over attack and compounded the impasse, which lasted until the final months of the war. While the overall hostile stalemate continued throughout andthe Australians and other allied armies repeatedly attacked, preceded by massive artillery bombardments intended to cut barbed wire and destroy enemy defences. After these bombardments, waves of attacking infantry emerged from the trenches into no man's land and advanced towards enemy positions.
The surviving Germans, protected by deep and heavily reinforced bunkers, were usually able to repel the attackers with machine-gun fire and artillery support from the rear. These attacks often resulted in limited territorial gains followed, in turn, by German counter-attacks. Both sides sustained heavy losses. In July Australian infantry were introduced to this type of combat at Fromelles, where they suffered 5, casualties in 24 hours. By the end of the year about 40, Australians had been killed or wounded on the Western Front.
In a further 76, Australians became casualties in battles, such Bullecourt, Messines, and the four-month campaign around Ypres, known as the Battle of Passchendaele. In March the German army launched its final offensive of the war, hoping for a decisive victory before the military and industrial strength of the United States could be fully mobilised in support of the allies. The Germans initially met with great success, advancing 64 kilometres past the region of the Somme battles, before the offensive lost momentum.
Between April and November the stalemate of the preceding years began to give way, as the allies combined infantry, artillery, tanks, and aircraft more effectively, demonstrated in the Australian capture of Hamel spur on 4 July In early October the Australian divisions withdrew from the front for rest and refitting; they were preparing to return when Germany surrendered on 11 November. Unlike their counterparts in France and Belgium, the Australians in the Middle East fought a mobile war against the Ottoman Empire in conditions completely different from the mud and stagnation of the Western Front.