A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra
Read about vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia, which occurs when a lack of vitamin B12 or A deficiency in either of these vitamins can cause a wide range of problems, including: Folic acid tablets are used to restore folate levels. When the body becomes deficient in folic acid, all cycles that are mentioned above will become ineffective and lead to many problems. STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIPS OF VITAMIN B12, FOLIC ACID, THYMINE, Posterolateral column disease or peripheral neuritis occurred in every person.
On the molecular level in the megaloblastic cells, the maturation of nuclei is delayed while cytoplasmic development is normal. Megaloblastosis is a generalized disorder because non-hematopoietic cells such as GI and uterine cervical mucosal cells can also have megaloblastic features.
The etiology of megaloblastic anemias is diverse, but a common basis is impaired DNA synthesis. The most common causes of megaloblastosis are cobalamin vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. The most well-known causes of cobalamin deficiency are pernicious anemia, failure of absorption of cobalamin in the terminal ileum, effects of medications e.
The development of megaloblastic anemia is usually insidious; therefore, patients are often relatively asymptomatic because they have had time to adjust to the marked fall in hemoglobin levels. There are a number of sporadic reports in the literature of compromised cellular immune status in patients with cobalamin and folate deficiencies affecting neutrophil functions.
- A Study of the Prevalence of Serum Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Deficiency in Western Maharashtra
We hereby aim to find out the prevalence of these deficiencies in general population and correlate the findings with the symptomatology. Materials and Methods The present study is a cross-sectional observation study carried out on patients seeking medical attention on outpatient and inpatient basis in the medicine department of a teaching institute of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad. Large number of patients were studied, and out of them, patients were selected on basis of below mentioned symptoms viz.
Exclusion criteria Normocytic normochromic peripheral blood smear Only microcytic peripheral blood smear History of bleeding from any site Other obvious structural and metabolic diseases.
The assay uses releasing agent Sodium Hydroxide to release vitamin B22 from the endogenous binding proteins in the samples and prevents rebinding after the solid phase is added to the sample.
The folic acid levels were determined using ACS: Folate in the patient's sample competes with acridinum ester-labeled folate in the Lite Reagent for a limited amount of biotin-labeled folate binding protein. Biotin-labeled folate binding protein binds to avidin that is covalently coupled to paramagnetic particles in the solid phase. Also, they help the nervous system function properly.7 Common Signs and Symptoms Of Folate Deficiency.. & How to Reverse It
Folic acid is the synthetic form of B9 which is found in supplements and fortified foods, while folate occurs naturally in foods. It helps in the production of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material, especially when cells and tissues are growing rapidly, such as during infancy, adolescence, and pregnancy.
Folic acid works closely with vitamin B12 in making red blood cells and helps iron function properly in the body. Vitamin B9 works with vitamins B6 and B12 and other nutrients in controlling the blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine. High levels of homocysteine are associated with heart disease, although some researchers are not sure whether homocysteine is a cause of heart disease or just a marker that indicates the presence of heart disease.
In addition, all grain and cereal products in the US are fortified with folic acid. These folic acid congeners are transported by receptor-mediated endocytosis across cells where they are needed to maintain normal erythropoiesis, interconvert amino acids, methylate tRNA, generate and use formate, and synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids.
Using vitamin B12 as a cofactor, folic acid can normalize high homocysteine levels by remethylation of homocysteine to methionine via methionine synthetase.
Vitamin B12 And Folic Acid
Since the body becomes deficient in folic acid, all cycles will become ineffective and lead to many problems such as megaloblastic anemia, cancer, and neural tube defects.
Urocanic acid is involved in many metabolic processes in order to generate formiminoglutamate which is known as "FIGLU" and is involved in generating glutamate with the help of formiminotransferase.
In folic acid deficiency, the catabolism of FIGLU is impaired and glutamate cannot be generated from formiminoglutamate; therefore, formiminoglutamate accumulates in the blood and is excreted in elevated amount in urine. Low glutamate level increases the likelihood of having schizophrenia, cognitive disorders, neuropsychiatric and anxiety disorders.
Also, glutamate plays an important role in the body's disposal of excess or waste nitrogen. Glutamate undergoes deamination, an oxidative reaction catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase. Some tissues are considered as glycine producers, while others, e. Both serine and glycine are transported across the mitochondrial membrane rapidly.
Also, many processes inside the body are impaired, such as impaired function of RNA and DNA, fat and fatty acid metabolism, and muscle formation. Low level of either serotonin or tryptophan has been linked to depression, confusion, insomnia, and anxiety.
Moreover, low serine level leads to decreased performance of the immune system since serine is involved in antibody formation.
It is involved as 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate methionine in the methylation process where the methyl group is transferred to homocysteine to form methionine in the presence of methionine synthase enzyme. Methionine synthase is one of the only two enzymes known to be Bdependent enzymes.
This process depends on both folic acid as well as vitamin B This reaction needs ATP and vitamin B12 and also the presence of methionine adenosyl transferase [Figure 1]. Methionine is also known to be essential for the formation of collagen that is involved in the formation of skin, nails, and connective tissues, and low methionine level has negative effects in these processes and functions.
Thymidylate synthase is involved in catalyzing the transfer of formaldehyde from folate to dUMP in order to form dTMP. Thymidylate synthase It is an enzyme that plays a role in the replication of cells and tissues.
From this cycle, the role of folate can be linked to cancer. Thymidylate synthase is a metabolic poison that is involved in causing functional folate deficiency, and body's cells grow rapidly as a result of increase in DNA synthesis.
Many anti-cancer drugs act indirectly by inhibiting DHFR or directly by inhibiting thymidylate synthase. Purine has many important roles in cell growth, division, and development, since it is considered to be along with the pyrimidine base of the DNA helix. In case of folate deficiency, there is an impairment of functions of purine, which means impairment in production of DNA, and leads to many problems inside the body, since DNA is the basis of every process.
DNA defects affect each part of the body, i. Megaloblastic anemia is described as presence of large-sized red blood cells than normal.
It results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis within red blood cell production. Since DNA synthesis becomes impaired, the cell cycle cannot progress and cell continues to grow without division, which presents as macrocytosis.
Vitamin B12 or folate deficiency anaemia - NHS
It can be a result of vitamin B12 deficiency and also due to trapping folate, preventing it from doing its normal function. This defect is caused by thymidylate synthesis defective with deoxyuridine triphosphate enlargement. Megaloblastic anemia leads to impairment of RBC, painful tingling of the hands and feet, gastrointestinal problems e.
Also, formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, which is known as domain of C1 tetrahydrofolate synthetase gene, has been shown that it is linked to a high risk of having neural tube defect. The most well-known type of this defect is "spina bifida," which can lead to many problems and issues, e. According to the spina bifida association, it can also lead to learning disabilities, gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, depression, urinary and bowel dysfunction, tendonitis, and allergies.
Vitamin B12 commonly known as cyanocobalamin is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. The structure of vitamin B12 is based on a corrin ring, which is similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome and has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or animals; bacteria and archaea are the only types of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin.
Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil, and so are poor sources of the substance, as compared with animal tissues. Vitamin B12 is naturally found in foods including meat especially liver and shellfisheggs, and milk products. Infants adequate intake months: The enzyme methionine synthase needs methylcobalamin as a cofactor.