Neuropsychological functioning and jumping to conclusions in delusions
a reasoning bias: the jumping to conclusions (JTC) to result from a number of interacting biological, . The relationship of JTC to the well-attested cognitive. Another relationship expert quoted in Psychology Today, Dr. Scott Carol, Meanwhile, if he keeps on relationship hopping, or transforms into a. The relationship between maximum jumping performance and hind limb Journal of Experimental Biology ; .. Five (two males and three females) of the 18 cats donated by the Psychology Department were part of a.
The mean differences were very little changed by adding in digit span forwards as a covariate, and digit span itself was not a significant predictor of RAVLT. A check on whether JTC performance differed by current level of medication none, low, medium or high dosage found no differences on either version of the task. However, those who jumped to conclusions on the Discussion We set out to examine the association of jumping to conclusions and working memory in the largest sample of individuals with high conviction delusions tested on these measures to date.
The performance of the JTC groups was worse on the majority of tests of working memory than that of their non-JTC counterparts, although this was only significant when JTC group membership was determined from the more difficult version of the task, which has higher working memory processing demands.
Patients in the JTC group were more impaired in the ability to hold information transiently on line and even more so, when performing complex manipulation of information by reordering it while it is maintained in memory. The groups allocated using the JTC hard version were well matched for other prominent indicators of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia—premorbid IQ and processing speed.
Verbal learning is also commonly impaired in schizophrenia, and there was a non-significant trend for the JTC group to be worse on this measure. Further analysis revealed that this was accounted for by working memory manipulation letter—number sequencing but not working memory span digit span forwards. This finding is consistent with the known importance of executive processes in optimising memory encoding Fletcher and Henson, and previously shown to be impaired in the RAVLT in schizophrenia Leeson et al.
The pattern of neuropsychological test results and the absence of a significant difference in premorbid IQ supports the hypothesis that JTC is associated with a specific working memory deficit. How can these findings of an association of neuropsychological impairment with a delusion-related process JTC be reconciled with previous studies, including large well-conducted meta-analyses and systematic reviews, showing no association between cognitive impairment and the positive symptoms of psychosis e.
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Note that, unlike many studies, this is a sample selected for the presence of delusions held with high conviction. We propose that these neuropsychological impairments are involved in the formation of delusions, through their contribution to a jumping to conclusions bias. The hypothesised mediating role of JTC, combined with the relatively subtle neuropsychological impairments involved, may go some way to explaining the hitherto limited evidence for neuropsychological impairments in relation to delusions.
The association with working memory is also consistent with that reported by Broome et al. One purpose of this study is to inform attempts to develop effective non-pharmacological treatments for delusions, such as recent reasoning training interventions Moritz et al. One of its implications is that such interventions might benefit from incorporating explicit strategies to compensate for any deficits and to enhance working memory. These might also draw on cognitive remediation methods, especially those which promote strategy coaching McGurk et al.
However they would be specifically targeted at awareness of a tendency to employ minimal cognitive resources, and at using strategies to compensate for this, enhancing data gathering and the evaluation of delusion-related evidence, for example, keeping disconfirmatory evidence for persecutory fears in mind.
Our sample was a selected group of people with delusions held with high conviction and relatively long-standing illnesses. This study was not designed to test associations of data gathering with delusions, since the presence of delusions was universal. In this sample, global severity of delusions did not differ in those who did and did not jump to conclusions, though there were indications that those who showed the JTC bias had a higher total number of delusions than those who did not.
Research with samples drawn from different stages of illness, including at risk, early and treatment resistant groups and with a greater range in symptomatology, including those with and without delusions, and with different delusion subtypes, is required to replicate and extend these findings. Future research should aim to elucidate the complex relationships between data gathering, working memory and delusions in psychosis. Greater clarity about the neuropsychological impairments associated with the JTC bias should also pave the way for theoretically grounded studies investigating neurobiological mechanisms of JTC, for example, using neuroimaging e.
Bebbington were grant holders no. The funding sources took no further part in the study. Contributors The study was designed by P. Joyce advised on the selection and interpretation of neuropsychological tests.
Waller took primary responsibility for the collection of data and R. Emsley for the analysis of the results. All authors contributed to the interpretation of the data. Garety wrote the first draft and all authors contributed to and have approved the final article. Ross are thanked for contributing to a pilot study.
Conflict of interest There were no conflicts of interest. Short-term and working memory. The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press; New York: Cognitive approaches to schizophrenia: Psychological Corporation; San Antonio, Texas: An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: The cognitive and affective structure of paranoid delusions: Delusion formation and reasoning biases in those at clinical risk for psychosis.
Theories of frontal lobe executive function: Specifically the Bonobo, a hyper-intelligent great ape that lives in a complex society, which happens to be sexy as heck. Bonobos are bo-boning constantly, mostly as a way of forming and strengthening social bonds. Their techniques, which mirror ours, include missionary style, oral sex, and even French kissing. Bonobo society is pretty great. Not only is there free love, but also widespread peace, which is in direct contrast to other primates that engage in straight-up warfare.
Because bonobos aren't all caught up in turf wars, there's a lot more time for lounging around and laughing and sexing and tickling one another.
Kind of like your first year of college, except forever. Agriculture meant individual farms, and people started valuing property over promiscuity. If you're part of a traveling band of nomads, it's not like you've got a bunch of possessions to pass on to your communally raised children This marked the beginning of relationships as yet another form of property.
And even though that's changed, harmful double standards linger. Men dominated society, just like how -- going back to our genetic cousins -- chimps operate in a "harem" style society, wherein males limit and dictate female sexuality. This is often known as a patriarchy, not equal-opportunity polyamory. See, a dominant male chimp defeats and intimidates the weaker chimps, discouraging female promiscuity and advancing his genetic line as a result.
If you've ever seen brodudes hopped up on testosterone fighting outside a club -- the kind who brag about random sex, but hypocritically consider women "slutty" for doing the same -- then you've seen anthropology in action.
In bonobo society, it's the opposite: Females get all the love, aren't socially shamed for freely expressing their sexuality as they see fit, and males don't compete over mating rights as if they're entitled. Which society would you rather live in? Tons of happy, functional, non-jealous adults make polyamory work!
Seriously, more people are in open relationships than you'd think; they just aren't open about their open relationships. That means one or both partners are allowed -- or encouraged -- to pursue intimacy with other people.