Identity (social science) - Wikipedia
Social context looks at relationships between language and society It considers the relationship between a person's language and their social identity. .. they have their own dialect of Mexican sign language because they. now realizes it as lying at the roots of different social opportunities between white and . between private and public lives; and (b) the individual and collective ( society, culture) stand in a mutually constitutive (dialectical) relation. The two forms. In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make The description or representation of individual and group identity is a central task for psychologists, sociologists is "a structural representation of the individual's existential experience, in which the relationships between self.
The country is just one person, one family. It is the apostolic state. The patriarchal behavior becomes the monarchical manner, the freedom in thought is abolished and instead is a man's thought — the king's thought. This limits the freedom of thought, freedom in the discovery of individuals. About the position of the individual in society, Chinese social-political doctrines are also concerned and discussed extensively in this regard, typically Confucianism.
When advocating the social order in society, Confucianism also mentioned the position of the individual. Thus, each and every individual needs to cultivate virtue, practice virtue to serve family, country and society.
With many profound changes in the history and characteristics inherent in daily life and culture, one of the striking features of Chinese philosophy is the special attention to the socio-political issues. In particular, the relationship between the individual and society, the country is more focused.
That explains why most of the Chinese philosophical doctrines focus on the state governance and the demand of individual responsibility for the national mission.
On the other hand, agricultural production faced many difficulties, natural disasters require many human resources' cooperation, first and foremost is the synergy of family members. It is this vital need that engages individuals together and in interpersonal relationships that individuals must maintain harmony, unity in a strong system of homes and the government When considering the Indian culture, it is essential to understand the Upanisad - the work that is considered to be the original source of philosophical, human and cosmopolitan thoughts of ancient Indians.
- The Individual and the Collective: A Discussion of Identity and Individualism
The birth of the Upanishad marked the transition from religious mythology to philosophical thought [ 6 ; p. The basic category in the Upanisad is Atman and Brahman.
Identity (social science)
Brahman is the universal soul, the Supreme Self, the absolute, the first and only, the immortal, the creative which dominate all things, the deep enmity of all existence, the origin of everything and of all things merging when existing in this world.
Atman is an internal entity, a soul, a manifestation of Brahman in each individual. If the human breath is the material life then Atman is the soul, the spiritual life. Atman is the entity that causes men to transcend all things. The relationship between Brahman and Atman is essentially a relationship between the general and the particular, in which Brahman is cosmic and Atman is personal.
Brahman is the master of the world, encompassing the whole world, the vast spiritual entity of all things. Atman was born from Brahman, based on Brahman to exist. An important method to achieve liberation is yoga, which is the word that is to connect, to harmonize, to unite Atman with Brahman. Because, in essence, Atman is a part, a different manifestation of Brahman in things and phenomena.
In history and the present stage, India defines classes clearly. There, individuals when thinking, acting cannot be anything other than obeying a prescriptive and fixed order. In addition, with a long history of cultural and religious diversity, Indians attach great importance to traditional rituals and long-standing relationships in the community such as family values, humility, harmony, cooperation spirit In the working environment, beside productivity, Indians are interested in empathy and emotion.
Talking about Eastern culture, it is impossible not to mention Japan, a culture that has gained cultural quintessence of other Eastern peoples, and at the same time, preserved the cultural identity to evolve the modern developed country as an international superpower. Relationships in Japanese society - superior and subordinate relations; senior and inferior relations; parental relations with children; the relationship between husband and wife - inclined to the longitudinal relationship.
Even the collaboration, the association between companies, organizations and collective relationship are longitudinal.
Under the influence of Confucianism, the Japanese are always bound by this relationship: Individuals in society are responsible for adhering to the principles of objectivity, which are dedication, loyalty, and harmony.
Thus, until now, the Japanese have always considered patience and restraint and noble virtues.
While the West gives prominence to individuals, self-assertion in any form in Japan is discouraged any nail that pops up will be hammered down.
Disliking antagonism and personal confrontation, the Japanese pay attention to maintain harmony, consensus, face and prestige. Therefore, when dealing with issues, the Japanese often argue less and unify more. Communism is a unique feature of Japanese culture. At work, the Japanese believe that success or failure is not the idea, the result of an individual but of the community. Collectives, despite existing competition but depending on particular circumstances, can still cooperate to achieve the common goal.
Thus, the longitudinal relationship connects individuals in society into a unified whole. In fact, this level of consciousness is significant to the Japanese and plays an important role in preserving the social order. Thus, the relationship between the individual and the society in Eastern culture has several following basic characteristics: First, they are introverted and static individuals who tend to focus on the spiritual world's depth and contemplate themselves.
Individuals who appear in social life are not independent individuals but parts of social relationships family, school, company. This makes individuals dependent on society, individuals lack conditions and need no conditions to improve human characteristics, the capability of self-determination and self-responsibility.
Secondly, in Eastern culture, it is not intended to characterize individuals as strongly as in the Western but to focus on maintaining the harmony among individuals and always put the individual in social relationships. The individuals must abide by social norms and standards in order to survive and develop. Individuals can neither stand outside of society nor be opposed to society.
It is bound and depends on society. In the East, the individuals' actions are always under society's control through norms and institutions established by society. Third, in Eastern culture, on the one hand, they do not recognize the individual self, but on the other always require the moral self, the responsibility: There, only the interests of society are considered legitimate.
The benefits of the individual, despite not being absolutely neglected, are only noticed in terms of social private relations. From a personal perspective, social consciousness and responsibility are not only a virtue, a criterion of truth but also a constituent element of human personality. From a social perspective, the individual responsibility to society is the basis to connect individuals, maintain sustainability and social development Transformation Relationship between Individuals and Society in Vietnam In the movement, the development of history, the perception and resolution of individual problems, individual roles, the relationship between the individual and the society in Vietnam lies in the nature of Eastern culture.
Despite the cultural similarity, in Vietnam, the perception and resolution of the relationship between the individual and the society are also personal. This relationship is reflected in the strong communism in House - Village - Water system.
This is very evident in the communism. Communism is one of the original human characteristics. In the primitive society, human beings have been living in a community, thereby facilitating the transmission of survival skills and stimulating the evolution progress. From then on, social forms have been emerged from primitive to complex and developed today. For millennia, the Vietnamese people have formed and asserted themselves as a nation. There are two views here - one is more extreme than the other.
The first idea is that language is so powerful that it actually affects how you see the world; the second is that is influences the way we think and behave. A linguist called Whorf claimed language actually affects the way you see the world so language is like a pair of glasses through which we see everything. Whorf said that Hopi and European had different ways of talking about the world, so it influenced the way they saw the world.
European languages treat time as something that can be divided up into separate seconds, minutes and days. Trees and plates can be counted, but water and hope cannot and the language makes distinctions here. The Hopi language treats time as indivisible so that Hopi will not talk about minutes and weeks. Trees and water are simply treated linguistically as non-discrete items. The result of this claimed Whorf was that the Hopi genuinely see the world differently from Europeans.
Their language structure makes them see the world differently. Unfortunately, for this theory, nobody asked the Hopi if they really saw the world differently. It would seem that they see it just as we do. Would their world view shift depending on the language they were speaking?
Another example of this theory is the often-cited fact that Eskimos have lots of different words for snow, so it means they actually see different kinds of snow, whereas we only see "snow". But this isn't really true because we can use words to describe the snow if we need to, e.
We aren't tuned to thinking about it that way, but if it becomes important, we can easily do so. We might not know the names of different makes of car, but still be able to tell the difference between a Fiat and a Rolls Royce, for all that.Self concept, self identity, and social identity - Individuals and Society - MCAT - Khan Academy
So could an Eskimo, even if the Inuit language didn't have the exact words. Besides which, Eskimos don't really have all those words for snow - it's just one of those pieces of information that everyone repeats and no-one has checked if it's true.
If you check, you find it isn't true! There is an important lesson here that linguists can learn: Any Hopi or Inuit could have told us immediately that this was a load of nonsense, but no-one ever thought to ask them. Many people, including linguists have done the same when describing sign languages, too. Often they have said things that people have come to believe when deaf signers have known it wasn't true.
The point about the story is that this sort of control does not really work, and cannot work because if we do not have words for our thoughts, we just create them anyway. Still, some politicians and businesses do like to believe that the language we use will affect the way we think about something. So, language doesn't affect what we can see in the world, but it is still possible that language affects people and society because maybe language still affects the way we can think.
Some people say that sign languages don't have abstract signs because all signs are iconic and so deaf people can't think about abstract things like love, bravery, inflation, investment for the future etc. IF this was true, then we could say this was an example of language affecting people. BSL can express anything that English can. A linguist called Basil Bernstein found that middle class children used an "elaborated" code of English in school. This meant they used more abstract words, less context dependent words and more complicated sentences.
Relation between Individual and Society
Working class children seemed to use a more "restricted" code. This meant using more concrete words, more context-dependent and less complicated sentences. So some people but NOT Bernstein said this means working class children can't think in abstract ways because their language doesn't allow them to. This, of course, is nonsense. Just as with deaf people.
All it means is that the children used different ways of expressing the same thing. One example of the way that language is said to affect society is in sexist language. The theory is that language affects the way we view men and women because it treats men and women differently.
If you use words like chairman or fireman it implies only men can do the jobs, so women feel left out. It is worth noting, though, that the form of the words can influence our view of things.
Another feature of English that might exclude women is the use of "him" to mean "him and her". This way the language may create sexism in a society. But really, it's more likely that the society made the language sexist, eg using words to put women down like chick, bird etc. Bird used to refer to men and women, but now it is just derogatory to women. Equally, however, it is possible that people who do understand the newcomer but who also speak another language may not want to speak the newcomer's language and so see her marker as an imposition and a negative boundary.
It is possible that the newcomer is either aware or unaware of this, depending on whether she herself knows other languages or is conscious of the plurilingual quality of the people there and is respectful of it or not.
Personal identity and Identity philosophy Hegel rejects Cartesian philosophy, supposing that we do not always doubt and that we do not always have consciousness. In his famous Master-Slave Dialectic Hegel attempts to show that the mind Geist only become conscious when it encounters another mind.
One Geist attempts to control the other, since up until that point it has only encountered tools for its use. A struggle for domination ensues, leading to Lordship and Bondage. Nietzschewho was influenced by Hegel in some ways but rejected him in others, called for a rejection of "Soul Atomism" in The Gay Science. Nietzsche supposed that the Soul was an interaction of forces, an ever-changing thing far from the immortal soul posited by both Descartes and the Christian tradition.
His "Construction of the Soul" in many ways resembles modern social constructivism. Heideggerfollowing Nietzsche, did work on identity. For Heidegger, people only really form an identity after facing death. It's death that allows people to choose from the social constructed meanings in their world, and assemble a finite identity out of seemingly infinite meanings.
For Heidegger, most people never escape the "they", a socially constructed identity of "how one ought to be" created mostly to try to escape death through ambiguity. Many philosophical schools derive from rejecting Hegel, and diverse traditions of acceptance and rejection have developed.
Ricoeur has introduced the distinction between the ipse identity selfhood'who am I? Implications[ edit ] The implications are multiple as various research traditions are now[ when? This becomes increasing challenging in stigmatized jobs or "dirty work" Hughes, Some jobs carry different stigmas or acclaims. People in these types of jobs are forced to find ways in order to create an identity they can live with.
In any case, the concept that an individual has a unique identity developed relatively recently in history. Factors influencing the emphasis on personal identity may include: