A Venn Diagram: 14 Points and the Treaty of Versailles by Kate Harris on Prezi
A German perspective on the Treaty of Versailles Wilson's Fourteen Points had been on the table for almost a year, having been unveiled in a speech . Confronted with this advice, the Reichstag had no alternative but to submit to the Allies. The Fourteen Points were listed in a speech delivered by President Peace Conference in and documented in the Treaty of Versailles. . Cabot Lodge, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Guide to the archives of the League of Nations, / United Nations Library, What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it.
Points six to thirteen were specific steps for putting point five into action; for example, the monolith Austro-Hungarian Empire would be dismantled and out of it the nations of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakiaand parts of Yugoslavia would be created, each new nation sharing a common language, customs, and culture.
- The Treaty of Versailles
- Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points"
- Fourteen Points
The realization of this point was the League of Nations. The League was to create a system of collective security that monitored world peace. Its armies were defeated and its people were starving, while the rumblings of German communists grew louder in the cities.
Fearing both revolution at home and total collapse at the front, the government requested an armistice using the Fourteen Points as its foundation.
'How and Why did the Treaty of Versailles differ from Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points?'
The new government hoped that the gesture would ingratiate Germany with Wilson, and make him an ally of the new republic in the forthcoming peace negotiations. Wilson gives us the Fourteen Points. To ensure the realization of his association of nations, Wilson had to betray self-determination and its associated points.
Japanfor example, wanted Chinese territory previously in German hands and threatened to quit the conference and also the Leagueif not given what it wanted. Thus in the interests of his League of Nations, Wilson acquiesced and placed millions of Chinese in the control of the Japanese government.
Point three — the removal of economic barriers - also suffered under the imperial ambitions of the victors. Wilson hoped, however, that the league, once functioning, could adjust these compromises. Wilson only intended self-determination and the consent of the governed to apply to Europe.
His upbringing in the American Jim Crow South made him oblivious to including non-whites in any discussion of political and social rights. However, despite his focus on Europe, the ideas of self-determination and public consent found fertile soil among nationalists and intellectuals in the colonies of European and American empires.
Isolationists rejected the idea of belonging to a League of Nations that could entangle the country in European affairs once again. At the Paris negotiations, French prime minister Georges Clemenceau argued forcefully for punitive and restrictive measures against Germany.
Among its main terms and conditions: Germany lost substantial amounts of territory. The Rhineland, an area of German territory bordering France, was ordered to be demilitarised, as a means of protecting the French border.
Another German border region, the Saarland, was occupied and administered by France. Germany was banned from entering into any political union or confederation with Austria. The German Reichswehr army was restricted in size. It could contain no more thanmen and was forbidden from using conscription to fill its ranks.
There were also restrictions on the size and composition of its officer class.
Fourteen Points - New World Encyclopedia
The German military was subject to other restrictions and prohibitions. Naval vessels were restricted in tonnage while bans were imposed on the production or acquisition of tanks, heavy artillery, chemical weapons, aircraft, airships and submarines.
These terms were formulated by the Allies without the input of Germany, which was not permitted to attend the Paris peace summit. In May German delegates were finally invited to Paris. After being kept waiting for several days, they were presented with the draft treaty. The German foreign minister, Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau, spoke at Versailles, suggesting that while his country was prepared to make amends for its wartime excesses, the suggestion that Germany was alone in starting the war or exceeding the rules of war was baseless: We are ready to admit that unjust things have been done.
We have not come here to diminish the responsibility of the men who have waged war politically and economically, or to deny that breaches of the law of nations have been committed… But the measure of guilt of all those who have taken part can be established only by an impartial inquiry, a neutral commission before which all the principals in the tragedy can be allowed to speak, and to which all archives are open.
We have asked for such an inquiry and we ask for it once more… In their hearts, the German people will resign themselves to a hard lot if the bases of peace are mutually agreed on and not destroyed. A peace which cannot be defended before the world as a peace of justice will always invite new resistance. No one could sign it with a clear conscience, for it could not be carried out.
No one could venture to guarantee its execution, though this obligation is required by the signing of the treaty. When news of the treaty reached Germany it generated a firestorm of public anger. There were few moments of national unity in Weimar Germany — but the response to Versailles was one of them. Erich Ludendorff considered the treaty the work of Jews, bankers and plotting socialists. Almost every newspaper in Germany slammed the treaty and screamed for the government to reject it.
For two tense months, the Weimar government debated the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles.Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points - History
President Friedrich Ebert was also opposed to the Versailles treaty.