Red Army troops raped even Russian women as they freed them from camps - Telegraph
It also gave him the chance to expand the Soviet Union to include the statistics he quotes of German arms and equipment reaching Soviet. Anna Akhmatova is regarded as one of the greatest Russian poets. personal fate in both blissful and, more often than not, unhappy romantic relationships. . she announces in a poem—written on the day Germany declared war on Russia —that she .. Akhmatova spent the first few months of World War II in Leningrad. Wartime relations between the United States and the Soviet Union can be considered one of Moreover, it was instrumental in defeating Nazi Germany in
In DecemberSoviet troops saved the capital of Moscow and began to push the German troops back. Soon after the invading Nazis conquered the western USSR, the civilian population faced a reign of terror. Hitler's objective was to create an empire where anyone he deemed a threat or unable to contribute to it would be enslaved, imprisoned or murdered.
The Nazi state encouraged Germans to hate Jews, Communists, and Eastern Europeans, or to be indifferent to their suffering.
This part of the Soviet Union contained Europe's largest concentration of Jews, who often lived in separate communities that traded with the surrounding area.
This isolation made them vulnerable to the execution teams, which filled mass graves with their victims.
Germans murdered entire communities of men, women, and children. A volatile mixture of anger at German crimes and patriotism led to the creation of partisan bands from the local population whose attacks started to disrupt the flow of German troops to the front in From September through Januarythe city of Leningrad now St. Petersburg endured a terrible siege. As the birthplace of the Soviet state, it had great political value for both sides. With Finnish troops to the north and Germans to the south, the only supply route into the city crossed Lake Ladoga to the east of the city.
Starvation, German bombs, and artillery fire claimed the lives of one million people during this ordeal. One of the soldiers that held the line before Leningrad was Joseph Pilyushin. At the start of the war, he was thirty eight years old with a wife and child in the besieged city. After many harrowing escapes from German attacks, he became a sniper skilled at using his rifle and telescopic sight to kill German officers.
Then bombs claimed the life of his wife, which forced him to place his child in an orphanage. The child was later killed by artillery fire. After losing his right eye to a bullet, he recovered and taught himself how to use his other eye to continue killing Germans, as well as training others.
Then one of his closest friends, a female sniper, was killed in action. She was one of overwomen that served in the Red Army as snipers, tank drivers, and medical personnel.
Just after the siege ended with a Soviet offensive that reached the city, Pilyushin was wounded so seriously that he was discharged from the military with kills. Inthe tide of the war began to turn in the Soviet Union's favor. Russian And yet the next lines of this poem, written inare: But when I come to free myself From this hallucination, I shall defend you when I hear Their words of condemnation.
She's neither wrong nor right! She's not a woman, she's a force, A tempest in the night; And feeling the approaching threat, I went to meet the storm! I did not stay, like you, indoors, Where it was dry and warm. Without Hitler's invasion and its catastrophic results, Valentina might have destroyed him. As it turned out, when June came, he knew there was something which was even more important to him than Valentina. And sadly, she, in the end, was the one who was destroyed.
Almost overnight, the invasion resolved all Simonov's inner hesitations. Suddenly and at last, he knew with absolute certainty the direction his life should take, and felt completely in harmony with the society to which he belonged. He was a soldier, utterly and fearlessly devoted to expelling the invader and winning the war. And at the same time, he was in the fortunate position that the weapon entrusted to him with which to fight Hitler was the one he knew better than anyone else how to wield - his pen.
In the course of the first year of the War, he was catapulted into a unique position as the patriotic war poet par excellence and a significant contributor - in verse, plays, films and prose - towards the revival of Soviet morale after the shock of the invasion: Wait for me, and I'll come back!
Wait with all you've got! Wait, when dreary yellow rains Tell you, you should not. Wait when snow is falling fast, Wait when summer's hot, Wait when yesterdays are past, Others are forgot. Wait, when from that far-off place, Letters don't arrive.
Wait, when those with whom you wait Doubt if I'm alive. As an expression of personal feeling, "Wait for me" - his most celebrated poem - was no more than a moment of self-deception: But for innumerable others as well as for the poet, it expressed what they wanted to believe. And as an expression of national self-confidence, it was very important.
The Britain of had its war poet too - almost as celebrated in his time. But although Rupert Brooke was, at his best, a fine poet, the poem by which he is often remembered and which had the greatest impact at the time it was published, had a very different message from Simonov's: If I should die, think only this of me That there's some corner of a foreign field Which is for ever England The soldier whose mind is on the cemetery will achieve little; and in fact Brooke died of fever before he even reached Gallipoli.
By comparison with the vigour and confidence of Simonov, Brooke's mood seems almost suicidal - and it was unfortunately typical of the war poetry of the young British subalterns of his generation - though Sassoon was a striking exception. In the early years of the war, Simonov seemed indestructible.
He answered that stare with a laugh - and with total acceptance of the future. What would he wish to take to Heaven with him? Everything he has experienced, or could experience, on earth - including, yes - even death: Even death, if that could be, I should not leave behind below.
All that is here our lot on earth I'd choose to take with me - and so God, in astonishment, would curse The worldly loyalties of men, And very soon, without a doubt, Would put me back on earth again. R ussian If Valentina's constancy could not be relied upon to protect him, his own will to live certainly could. And unlike most of the British war poets, Simonov did survive. The poems of to and particularly those dedicated to Valentina, subsequently collected as With you and without you are likely to be the basis of Simonov's continuing poetic reputation.
The best of them are those which express the conflict between the two strongest motivations of his being - his love for Valentina and his military devotion to Russia. And at the back of it all, a sense of welcoming and enjoying the single-mindedness - or double-mindedness - that his situation had now given to him, and a fear of what life would be like if ever these two uniquely powerful motivations no longer guided him.
We are to imagine that the poet and his friends - presumably war correspondents like himself - gather regularly, when they can, in Valentina's flat. After they disperse, they go off to the various fronts and some of them are killed. Each time, fewer attend. The purpose of the poem is to reassure Valentina that she is right, while his friends are present, to accord him, the poet, exactly the same treatment as the others.
She has become an ideal to them, a kind of icon: Until the party breaks up, the poet expects and receives no special treatment from her. When all go, he quietly returns and is received as a lover: The first half of the poem establishes this principle; in the second, it is carried further.
What if he, the poet, is the one who fails to return? Again, she must accord him no special priority: This arouses overwhelming emotion, because the possibility really does exist that she would feel "the show must go on". After all, that was how she had reacted when Serov died. It was her first night in a new comedy: She was an actress We must not suppose that the poem exactly covers events which happened in the way described. It was written in the first winter of the War, when the German army had nearly reached Moscow.
Although many of Simonov's colleagues were indeed being killed, absence from a party need not have meant death, or even hospitalisation: An event which no doubt did occur, perhaps once or twice over that period, is used symbolically, to express the conflict between the demands of love and those of war.
And although the poem presents this conflict as taking place in the mind of Valentina, this is a projection of a conflict taking place in the mind of the poet. The climax of the poem is more powerful and deeply felt than anything else Simonov wrote: What if for me you feel a special pain?
What if I loved you? What does it mean That I shall never see your eyes again? We gathered here as equals - only later Fate gave you me alone when back I came, But sitting in this room around this table Our rights in you were equal and the same. Russian The emotion projected on to Valentina is the poet's own; and the tragic sense of loss has an entirely different cause, more likely to be associated with Valentina's unfaithfulness, Perhaps he knew that she had already commenced her affair with the future Marshal Rokossovsky.
What the poem demonstrates is the poet's success despite profound emotion in reconciling himself to what has happened - of accepting it somehow as part of the fortunes of war. The positive presence in the poem is not the poet's love for Valentina but the ikonic significance, as a feminine symbol, which Valentina represents; and the comradeship in war which Simonov enjoys with his friends.
Somehow, even in death, they are one. Thus the ideal which Simonov had set before himself in The sacred hot offensive frenzy, The bitter, brutal toil of war Will bind as one our generation - An iron knot for evermore. Simonov's most definitive expression of the achieved unity and comradeship of war is in "The House at Vyazma", written in The poet and his companions share an old house in Vyazma, for one night.
In the morning, they go their separate ways - some never to return. The house becomes a symbol of their moral unity: Well, everyone knows, except us, that all Negroes have rhythm, so they elected me as class poet. His first piece of jazz poetry, "When Sue Wears Red," was written while he was in high school.
He lived briefly with his father in Mexico in Upon graduating from high school in JuneHughes returned to Mexico to live with his father, hoping to convince him to support his plan to attend Columbia University.
Hughes later said that, prior to arriving in Mexico, "I had been thinking about my father and his strange dislike of his own people. I didn't understand it, because I was a Negro, and I liked Negroes very much.
Soviet Union in World War II
On these grounds, he was willing to provide financial assistance to his son, but did not support his desire to be a writer. Eventually, Hughes and his father came to a compromise: Hughes would study engineering, so long as he could attend Columbia. His tuition provided, Hughes left his father after more than a year. He left in because of racial prejudice.
He was attracted more to the African-American people and neighborhood of Harlem than to his studies, but he continued writing poetry. Malone inspending six months traveling to West Africa and Europe. Malone for a temporary stay in Paris.
In Novemberhe returned to the U. After assorted odd jobs, he gained white-collar employment in as a personal assistant to historian Carter G. As the work demands limited his time for writing, Hughes quit the position to work as a busboy at the Wardman Park Hotel. There he encountered poet Vachel Lindsaywith whom he shared some poems.
Impressed with the poems, Lindsay publicized his discovery of a new black poet. By this time, Hughes's earlier work had been published in magazines and was about to be collected into his first book of poetry. Hughes at university in The following year, Hughes enrolled in Lincoln Universitya historically black university in Chester County, Pennsylvania.
He joined the Omega Psi Phi fraternity. After Hughes earned a B.
Soviet Union in World War II - Wikipedia
Except for travels to the Soviet Union and parts of the Caribbeanhe lived in Harlem as his primary home for the remainder of his life. During the s, he became a resident of Westfield, New Jersey for a time, sponsored by his patron Charlotte Osgood Mason. Hughes's story "Blessed Assurance" deals with a father's anger over his son's effeminacy and "queerness".
Hughes did, however, show a respect and love for his fellow black man and woman. Other scholars argue for his homosexuality: His ashes are interred beneath a floor medallion in the middle of the foyer in the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem.
The title is taken from his poem " The Negro Speaks of Rivers ". Within the center of the cosmogram is the line: My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.
I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. Except for McKay, they worked together also to create the short-lived magazine Fire!! Devoted to Younger Negro Artists. Hughes and his contemporaries had different goals and aspirations than the black middle class.