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It has also documented the growing number and locations of surviving books autographed, marked, and annotated in Melville's hand, with entries devoted to newly emerged books appearing in successive editions of Sealts's Melville's Reading, as well as in supplements published by Sealts and Steven Olsen-Smith in Melville Society Extracts and Leviathan: A Journal of Melville Studies.
Supplying fuller bibliographic entries than was possible in the printed resources, the "Online Catalog" is instantly updateable as new volumes emerge. Its organization and features are described in the " Introduction to the Online Catalog. Housed within the separate collections of numerous research institutions and private individuals, Melville's actual copies remain dispersed, their marginalia out of reach to most scholars.
Cowen was first to undertake the task of making Melville's marginalia available to researchers with his Harvard University dissertation. Along with being incomplete, Cowen's edition is difficult to use owing to its own rarity outside of major research institutions. While it aimed to meet a serious need in American literary studies, Cowen's Melville's Marginalia failed to make the scholarly impact warranted by the record of Melville's reading and its significance for our understanding of his thought and writings.
The project's "Online Catalog" and "Browse Volumes" feature supply links to digital copies of Melville's books that can be examined in the site's page viewer. Mouse over the spine images in "Browse" to display bibliographical descriptions at upper left, and click on the spines to open digital copies. In most instances, the spine images in "Browse" are of copies owned by Melville, but in cases of surviving books with missing or mutilated spines, images of period surrogate spines are displayed.
All images in the project's page viewer are of the copies Melville owned or in rare instances borrowed.
How to convert markup into margin
The images are accompanied by bibliographical descriptions and documentary notes, as well as documentation and transcriptions of marginalia. Digital copies are added as funds become available for imaging services at institutions where Melville's books are preserved, and as volumes held by private individuals become available for photographic capture by the project.
Selected digital copies include critical introductions to marginalia, and it is the goal of Melville's Marginalia Online to supply critical introductions for all published copies as contributing scholars continue to take part in the project.
Editorial Policies Documentary Display Page images display in the project's image window with one-click view options of height and width and drop-down zoom options at the top-right of the screen.
The left sidebar apparatus consists of a collapsible hierarchy of section divisions, page labels, and documentary descriptions and transcriptions.
Difference Between Margin and Markup (with Comparison Chart) - Key Differences
For example, see Melville's marginalia to Matthew Positions of marginalia on the page are documented by numeric reference to the textual lines on the page, excluding page headers, blank lines, and non-textual printed lines containing separator bars or ornamental devices. For example, see Melville's marginalia to Matthew Arnold's " Empedocles on Etna " in his copy of Arnold's New Poems, with the apparatus open at left to page 20 displaying an "enhanced image" option.
Descriptions and commentary are devoted to verified inscriptions, only, and do not typically address other material features such as paper imperfections and stray press ink that could be mistaken for marginalia or, no less frequently, pencil offsets and show-through's of marginalia on adjacent pages.
For instance, in the enhanced image displaying erased marginalia on pagevolume 6, of Melville's set of Shakespeare's Dramatic Workswe can actually discern marginalia on three consecutive pages: The descriptive apparatus for page refers only to the legitimate checkmark at line The absence of additional documentation indicates for users that the other marks are "ghosts"—not actually present on page but identified respectively in apparatus entries for and This example illustrates the importance of examining the images on this web site in light of accompanying editorial documentation.
Transcriptions of Melville's Hand Transcriptions displayed in the apparatus present the latest versions of inscriptions and annotations in Melville's hand, with readings aimed at representing Melville's intentions in the act of inscription. The transcriptions do not represent the genetic details of revised content, such as strike-through's or instances of over-writing, although such matters are addressed procedurally in accompanying commentary.
Nor do the transcriptions represent Melville's frequent instances of fused, elided, omitted, or transposed letter forms, although outright misspellings are reproduced literatim in instances where they can be plausibly determined. Melville habitually inscribed annotations in the top, bottom, and outside margins of the page, often linking annotations in the top and bottom margins to text with corresponding x's or other varieties of markings.
In all cases, editorial policy at Melville's Marginalia Online is to observe the line breaks of Melville's inscriptions as well as the exact distributions of Melville's words per written line. Although erased markings are with rare exceptions fully documented, Melville's erased annotations range among the fully deciphered, the partially deciphered, and the undeciphered.
As illustrated in the descriptive apparatus for page 60 in Melville's copy of Thomas Beale's The Natural History of the Sperm Whalepartially deciphered erased annotations appear with editorial insertions enclosed by square brackets.
Where words and letters can be responsibly conjectured on the basis of material evidence, these bracketed conjectural readings appear in non-italicized characters. Single undeciphered words appear bracketed as question marks preceded and followed by dashes.
In instances where the number of words in an erased line are not clear, a bracketed editorial estimate is supplied in italic characters. Owing to Melville's distinct style of handwriting—a style that remained fairly consistent from the s up until his death in —positive identification is typically a straightforward matter of editorial recognition, with problematic cases analyzed against examples of his handwriting in verified period documents.
But there are numerous cases when inscriptions and annotations in Melville's books cannot reliably be identified as his. When handwriting can be positively associated with some other person in Melville's circle or with a subsequent owner whose identity is known, the individual is identified by name in the left sidebar apparatus entry for the inscription or annotation.
The problem of attribution increases substantially with presumed origins of markings in Melville's books. SGML is a system for defining structured document types, and markup languages to represent instances of those document types. Every SGML document has three parts: A prologue including one or more document type declarations, which specifiy the element types, element relationships and attributes, and references that can be represented by markup.
An instance, which contains the data and markup of the document. We use the term HTML to mean both the document type and the markup language for representing instances of that document type. The prologue for an HTML document should look like: Many extant HTML documents do not contain a prologue.
The markup gives structure to the document. The instance represents a hierarchy of elements. Each element has a namesome attributesand some content.
Most elements are represented in the document as a start tag, which gives the name and attributes, followed by the content, followed by the end tag. They have no content.
HTML and MIME
They show up as just a start tag. For the rest of the elements, the content is a sequence of data characters and nested elements. Some things such as forms and anchors cannot be nested, in which case this is mentioned in the text.Margin V Markup - B
Anchors and character highlighting may be put inside other constructs. Most elements start and end with tags. Empty elements have no end tag. Until such time as support for these idioms is widely deployed, their use is strongly discouraged. The end tags of some other elements e.
This does not change the document structure -- the following documents are equivalent: Names consist of a letter followed by up to 33 letters, digits, periods, or hyphens.