The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra - Chapter V - Marriage and First Year in Russia
Above: The Wedding of Nicholas and Alexandra in the Chapel of the Winter Palace . The Emperor Nicholas II meant to live in the rooms of his great- grandfather, . inexperienced wife, but to his mother, whose advice on general questions he. Nicholas refused to accept any reduction in the absolute power he held. The departure of Nicholas II to the front left his wife, Tsarina Alexandra, in control. As Nicholas came into power in , Russia was enjoying a mild industrial boom, The day his father, Alexander II died he said, “My god, my god, what a day. for occupying all of Manchuria, which he did against the advice of his ministers.
This upset the Japanese, who had their eye on Tokyo. Instead of trying to keep peace in he personally authorized the infantry of Russian troops into Northern Korea and the exploitation of timber concession near the Youu River.
By Russia and Japan were at war. Each Minister acts on his own, doing as much damage as possible to the other Ministers…It is a curious state of things.Nicholas and Alexandra
There is an Emperor, a religious madman almost- without a statesman, or even a council-surrounded by a legion of Grand Dukes-thirty-five of them and not one of them at war this moment, with a few priests and priestly women behind them.
No middle class; an aristocracy ruined and absolutely without influence, an underpaid bureaucracy living, of necessity, on corruption. The first were the social democrats that embraced Marxism and concentrated on their propaganda to the factory workers.
This party because of quarreling between Lenin and Plenkanov split into two groups the Melsheviks and Bolsheviks. The second group, the S. In January a strike broke out in the Putilov engineering works in St. Petersburg and spread rapidly to other factories. Father Gapon, who led the union, was forced with the choice of relinquishing his job or taking positive action. He decided to lead a peaceful demonstration of the workers to the Winter Palace to petition the Tsar.
The petition called for an 8-hour day, freedom of speech and religion, and an amnesty for political prisoners. He had prepared it with the S. Nicholas had been informed of the demonstration the night before but chose not to be present to receive the document, instead he left the responsibility of receiving the document to the St.
When the mob started to approach the palace the police opened fire, two to four thousand people were killed and wounded. This day was known as Bloody Sunday.
From Russia, with love...
As a result of Bloody Sunday an unprecedented number of strikes paralyzed Russian government. Street demonstrations struck at the heart of the autocracy. The people were beginning to realize that they all had something in common: With this common goal they worked together to slowly grasp the unlimited power of the Tsar. The perfect time was approaching for the people of Russia to make their revolt.
The military had lost a series of battles: The whole empire was disaffected and losing great faith in the decisions of their Tsar.
The people clearly did take advantage of these conditions. By mid-October the country was in strike: Petersburg electric lights went out and food deliveries ceased. Peasants raided estates, burning the houses, stealing cattle. These events were not enough for the Tsar to grant the workers better conditions; therefore, the Russians took greater measures to change the empire. Leon Trotzky, a Marxist formatted a council representing the workers. This council threatened to shut down every factory that did not shut.
Nicholas was still not moved when practically forced to grant rights to his citizens. It was as if he was blind to their needs. Sergius Witte wrote this constitution called the Manifesto, which instilled several new rights for the people: Witte was the only Prime Minister that Nicholas had who worked to help the people and to prolong his reign as Tsar. The Duma that Witte had instated only lasted two months. When the Duma proposed ideas such as universal suffrage, land reforms, release of political prisoners, and a pledge to appoint ministers Nicholas was appalled by the lack of respect the Duma had for the Tsar.
He would still not grant any of their requests.
Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse) - Wikipedia
Goremykin then stepped down and a new Prime Minister, Stolypin was put into command. He restored the October Manifesto, but also closely watched over the Duma. In the third Duma Stolypin abolished universal suffrage and put most of the power in the gentry. Nicholas should have done everything he could to keep Stolypin as Prime Minister, but he began to let others interfere with the state of Russia. The wife of the Grand Duke, cousin to the Tsar, brought an illiterate holy man to the family.
He was renown for his healing powers and was brought to the Imperial family in order to soothe the child, relieve his pain, and put him to sleep. He carried out his job well and the family became dependent on him for the health of their son.
When in trouble or assailed by doubts I like to have a talk with him, and invariably feel at peace with myself afterwards. But the Imperial family refused to hear a harsh word spoken about Rasputin as they were becoming even more reliant on him.
Alexandra believed that Rasputin was her personal emissary from God to her. He held a great deal of importance in her mind. Stolypin was so disgusted by Rasputin and the accounts discovered about him by the police he forced himself out of St.
Nicholas once again lost a valuable Prime Minister on behalf of his slavish decisions. He gave up Stolypin for Rasputin. He gave up the man who built his government for the man who would destroy it. In industrial unrest was once again growing.
In there were strikes, in between January and July, over With a call to Rasputin his pain was eased. In six revolutionaries from Bosnia who were encouraged by the Russian military upon orders of the Imperial Staff in St.
Petersburg threw a bomb on the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian thrown. Now Russia and Austria faced each other at war. Within the first month of the war the army ran out of ammunition.
The only Russian people who had trust in Rasputin were the Tsar and Tsarina. Since they trusted him, the Russian people had no trust in the Tsar and Tsarina for choosing to give such a despicable man so much power.
Alexandra balanced her alien characteristics with a mania for the Russian Orthodox Church. She had the enthusiasm of the convert in her case, from Protestantism. Her tendency to mysticism and spiritualism was not unusual for the time… St Petersburg was a magnet for religious cranks and faith healers, some of whom were taken in by high society.
The marriage between Nicholas and Alexandra was unusual for several reasons. Unlike most royal marriages of the 19th century, the union between Nicholas and Alexandra was based on love rather than political convenience.
They preferred spending time away from the hubbub of St Petersburg, either at their palace in Tsarskoye Selo, 20 miles outside the capitol or their Crimean resort on the Black Sea coast. Tsarina Alexandra Alexandra Feodorovna, the Russian tsarina The royal couple pined for a son to ensure the longevity of the Romanov dynasty. Within months, however, it was clear that the Tsarina had passed onto her son the defective gene that causes haemophilia.
Several European royals endured this deadly burden. Haemophilia was carried by women but its symptoms only affected males. Haemophilia prevented blood from clotting naturally. It placed its sufferers at serious risk of a fatal haemorrhage, even the most insignificant cut, scratch or bruise.
Very few haemophiliacs lived into their 30s; most died in childhood. Knowing she had given her son this fatal gift, even while suffering no ill effects from it herself, tortured Alexandra for the rest of her days. The five Romanov children, photographed in The Tsarina is best remembered for helping to discredit the Romanov dynasty in its final war-ravaged months. He was intelligent and well-travelled but lacked both the demeanour and foresight to rule at a time of unfolding change.
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