Baseball - Wikipedia
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A baseball player lives in a glass house, and in a stark moral universe Everything that every player does is accounted for and everything accounted for is either good or bad, right or wrong. There is no statistical equivalent in cricket for the fielding error and thus less emphasis on personal responsibility in this area of play. The Green Monster is visible beyond the playing field on the left.
Unlike those of most sports, baseball playing fields can vary significantly in size and shape. The most famously idiosyncratic outfield boundary is the left-field wall at Boston's Fenway Parkin use since Thus a foul fly ball may be entirely out of play in a park with little space between the foul lines and the stands, but a foulout in a park with more expansive foul ground.
These variations can make the difference between a double and a triple or inside-the-park home run. While the adjacent image shows a traditional field surfacing arrangement and the one used by virtually all MLB teams with naturally surfaced fieldsteams are free to decide what areas will be grassed or bare.
Surface variations can have a significant effect on how ground balls behave and are fielded as well as on baserunning. Similarly, the presence of a roof seven major league teams play in stadiums with permanent or retractable roofs can greatly affect how fly balls are played.
Comparison of baseball and softball - Wikipedia
The area out-of-bounds on a football or soccer field does not affect play the way foul territory in baseball does, so variations in that regard are largely insignificant. These physical variations create a distinctive set of playing conditions at each ballpark.
Other local factors, such as altitude and climate, can also significantly affect play. A given stadium may acquire a reputation as a pitcher's park or a hitter's park, if one or the other discipline notably benefits from its unique mix of elements.
Spring-Klein Sports Association :: Umpires
The most exceptional park in this regard is Coors Fieldhome of the Colorado Rockies. A team that plays in a park with a relatively short right field, such as the New York Yankeeswill tend to stock its roster with left-handed pull hitterswho can best exploit it.
On the individual level, a player who spends most of his career with a team that plays in a hitter's park will gain an advantage in batting statistics over time—even more so if his talents are especially suited to the park. Baseball statistics Organized baseball lends itself to statistics to a greater degree than many other sports. Successful completion of this class will qualify you to work 9u and higher level games at SKSA.
Most other leagues will accept completion of this class as qualification to work at their park as well. The core instruction of this class is used at other SCUA camps priced at several hundred dollars. Through this relationship, Clint has made this camp available to SKUA members at a reduced rate which allows SKUA members to attend at no cost the cost is covered by the association.
This is the Premier Amateur Umpire Camp offered in the Houston area, no other camp will come close to the level of training that you can receive without traveling several hundred miles and paying many times the cost. Students attending the Basic I and Basic II classes can attend with special breakout sessions taught specifically tailored to your current level. The PUC is an advanced 3 man clinic that prepares and evaluates umpires to work professionally in the summer.
Ron is a long time instructor and great friend to SKUA and a mentor to several of our umpires.
Comparison of baseball and softball
The referee is oftentimes assisted by two assistant refereesand sometimes by a fourth official. In UEFA football 2 additional assistant referees are used, each one standing next to a goal post and directly behind the goal line, to watch for fouls occurring within the penalty area and to see if the ball enters the goal.
Football Gaelic [ edit ] There are usually 7 officials in Gaelic football. A main referee follows the play around the field and has the final authority on decisions such as fouls, throws and card-issuing, un-desputable by players.
The main play referee is assisted by two linesmen, who make decisions on who gains possession when the ball goes out of the field of play, and can also advise the referee on off-the-ball events such as a fight or an illegal tackle. As well as the referee and two linesmen, there are two umpires at each end of the field of play who stand on either side of the goal post and raise a white flag for a point, or a green flag for a goal respectively, also calling wides and square-balls.
An umpire can also advise the referee on off-the-ball incidents, but does not hold as much authority as a linesman.
In recent times, technology called 'Hawk-eye' can be used if both the umpires and referee are unsure of whether a point has been scored or not, though this technology is not widely available. Golf[ edit ] Golf is often played without referees. They are assisted by a timekeeper and a scorekeeper. Hurling[ edit ] There are usually 7 officials in hurling. As well as the referee and two linesmen, there are two umpires at each end of the field of play who stand on either side of the goal post and raise a white flag for a point, or a green flag for a goal respectively, also calling wides.
Any umpire can also advise the referee on off-the-ball incidents, but does not hold as much authority as a linesman. In recent times, technology called 'Hawk-eye' can be used if both the umpires and referee are unsure of whether a point has been scored or not, although this technology is not widely available.Softball Signals Training
Official ice hockey Games of ice hockey are presided over by on-ice referees, who are generally assisted by on-ice linesmen. The combination of referees and linesman varies from league to league. A few leagues, including the NCAA, are starting to refer to linesmen as assistant referees. In addition, off-ice officials administer to specific functions such as goal judge, penalty timekeeper, game timekeeper, statistician, official scorer and, at the highest professional levels, instant replay official.
Korfball[ edit ] In korfballit is the referee's responsibility to control the game and its environment, to enforce the rules and to take action against misbehaviour. He is assisted by an assistant referee, who alerts the referee to out balls and fouls and may have other tasks determined by the referee, and where possible by a timekeeper and scorer.
Lacrosse[ edit ] A lacrosse match is presided over by a crew of either two, three, or in some cases four on-field officials. In two-man crew, a Referee and an Umpire are utilized. In a three-man crew, a Referee, Umpire, and Field Judge are utilized. The Referee shall always have the final ruling on any and all matters. For games of significance a four-man crew can be used which includes a three-man crew plus a Chief Bench Official who has jurisdiction over the bench area including the timekeeper.
The professional outdoor league in the United States utilizes four on-field officials in order to be able to better keep up with the increased pace of play. Lawn bowls[ edit ] A lawn bowls match is presided over by a bowls umpire or technical official.
In games where single players compete, a marker is required to direct play and assist players with questions relating to the position of their bowls.