Critical analysis of press freedom in pakistan - CSS Forums
Media professionals have urged the government to empower M. Ziauddin emphasised that the government needs to introduce a law on. Media and Media Law in Pakistan: Legal Framework on Freedom of The Press, Newspaper, News Agencies and Books Registration Ordinance, . government; and ensure independence and diversity of media is essential. . foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court. Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and Using draconian laws the government has also banned or officially silenced popular television channels. In its Press Freedom Index, Reporters without borders ranked Pakistan number out of countries based on.
Press in Pakistan usually faces threats, violence,economic pressure, etc. The country's law on blasphemy has been used against journalists.
Poor literacy, urban orientation of the press, and the high price of newspapers are detrimental factors for theunder development of print media in Pakistan. Beside these barricades, one can now easily notice a shift from the centralized broadcasting to an open competition broadcast system in Pakistan, enabling the audience to enjoy more power of selective exposure.
All governments including the military sayhigh about the press freedom but often thing the other way round when the press criticizes the government. However, during the Musharraf military and civil regime for about nine year, press was operated in a mixed character. However the new government of the Pakistan People's party has promised for maximum freedom of the press. Pakistan press laws, freedom, media sociology, challenges to Pakistan media.
Restriction to freedom of expression is the culture of camouflage in bureaucracy Pakistan Press Foundation, Under the press and publication ofprint media particularly grew rapidly and so its revenue.
However it opened up the doors for yellow and lifafa Envelop journalism. Earning of unlawful money by journalists. Waseem argues that t he increase of private radio and television channels in the last few years has ended domination of the state TV broadcast. Now media have become pluralistic and many viewers in Pakistan also watch international broadcast via a dish or cable. Indian entertainment channels are very popular in Pakistan. The multiple-channel broadcasting has set a new trend in the Pakistani society by giving the users more control over the communication process.
Now there is a shift from the centralized broadcasting to an open competition broadcast system, enabling the audience members to enjoy more power of selective exposure. Waseem in this regard views the private channels prefer to go by more newsworthiness of the events. Private TV Channels and the cable TV have brought the world closer to the domestic viewers, making them part of the global village. Waseem argues that beside threats and other restrictions, the private TV channels and print media frequently condemn the government for going against the spirit of the constitution, infringing democratic values, price rises, unemployment, poverty,worsening of the law and order situation.
This changing phenomenon has altered perception, thought and behavior patterns of the Pakistani people towards the constantly changing political, moral, religious and social scenario of the country. Religious and lower middle classes are criticizing some of the private TV channels for western orientation in their contents and immoral entertainment programs.
It would be interesting to analyze how much tolerance the new government holds to stand criticism of the enthusiastic private electronic media. Among the Urdu press, Jang is considered the largest newspaper followed by Nawa-e-Waqt. Poor literacy rates, urban orientation of the press, and the high price of newspapers are the detrimental factors for the low circulation.
The circulation of newspapers per capita in Pakistan is among the lowest in the world Pakistan Press foundation, There are about million populations in Pakistan with diverse ethnic groups and languages.
Urdu newspapers have a broader reach than the English-language papers Official Pakistan Government. The English papers are circulated among the elite who are considered the opinion leaders. The Urdu press is circulated among the masses. Urdu newspapers usually include scandals, politics, entertainments elements, religious items, etc.
Government-media relations discussed
Since there is shortage of the regional press in Pakistan, people concerned of the rural areas are not highlighted mostly Pakistan Press foundation, Major cities like Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi and to some extent Peshawar get more news coverage than the rest of the cities in the country. The upper-middle class is over-represented than the middle and lower middle class on TV. In commercials most often, women are portrayed as sex objects.
In the coverage of news, women portrayal is subsequently less than men. According to Najam the role of media in Pakistan has also been lethargic in terms of improving the status of women. Pakistan television PTV plays have a crosscutting viewership, especially among women. However, plays mostly revolve around formula-based story lines, which cast women in either submissive roles or at the other extreme as westernized glamour girls.
The use of female model in the advertisement is very common but the model is not as sexy as shown in the Western countries. Advertisement is the sole income of the press in Pakistan. Big manufacturers and organizations have considerable power to control the media content.New law in Pakistan on social media users.
They can suppress public messages they do not like. Due to this factor,media in Pakistan perform very little function of watch dog journalism. Media give importance to some people or group by portraying them frequently and marginalizing others by ignoring them.
Media of Pakistan - Wikipedia
Most of the TV programs either film or dramas portray violent behavior. Majority of news stories in print and electronic media include violence and criminal acts. Most of the violence media contents contain murder, fraud, drug, terrorism etc.
Reporting of various crimes has no relationship to their relative frequency in the community. The known people include politicians, political candidates, and ministers, leading federal and provincial officials, alleged and actual violators of law.
The major topics of news are Government conflicts and disagreements, Government decisions, proposals, ceremonies, protest violence, crimes, scandals, disasters and investigations. Media education is gaining grounds in Pakistan. There are about 16 universities that offer media education.
The standard of existing media education in Pakistan is also improving. Now the situation is the other way round. Now editors of the main stream media are demanding for university media graduates. The education of journalist has brought considerable change in the content presentation and sociology of the media in the country Shakeela, Media situation after the February election has greatly been improved.
Government-media relations discussed -Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF)
Generally, Musharraf government followed a more liberal policy towards the press with fewer restrictions and much less manipulation. However, situation on the ground was different. Authorities used violent policy to silence critical voices in the media.
At numerous cases press was barred from covering opposition, public events, corruption and abuses of power by the public servants and tribal areas where military was engaged in operations against terrorists. There were censorships, press advice, issuance of government's advertisement to favorite media organizations, forcing off opposition leader's interview on a private television channel, dozens of reporters were beaten and arrested during the tussle between the President's election and the Supreme Court Adnan and Matiullah, Green Press Report highlights working in Pakistan as an independent journalist is difficult and dangerous.
The program provides journalists with valuable new perspectives and insights on this critically important relationship, a wealth of contacts and resources for future reporting, and friendships with professional colleagues in the other country upon whom to draw throughout their careers. Journalists will study each other's cultures as they are immersed in newsrooms in each country.
The program will include events and opportunities to experience U. Representatives from the U. Pakistanis will receive four-week internships at U. Participants on both sides will have opportunities to report on their experiences in each country, which will help to educate their audiences and dispel myths and misconceptions that people carry in each country about residents of the other.
The CEJ serves as a hub for the professional development, training and networking of Pakistani journalists and media professionals from all parts of the country.
Media of Pakistan
A partnership with Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism and the Institute of Business Administration IBA aims to provide targeted, practical trainings for Pakistani journalists in print, broadcast, and digital media. Courses will be co-instructed by faculty from the Medill School, accomplished newsroom managers, editors and reporters from the United States, and prominent media professionals from Pakistan.
History[ edit ] The first step in introducing media laws in the country was done by the then military ruler and President Ayub Khan who promulgated the Press and Publication Ordinance PPO in The law empowered the authorities to confiscate newspapers, close down news providers, and arrest journalists.
Using these laws, Ayub Khan nationalised large parts of the press and took over one of the two largest news agencies. The other agencies was pushed into severe crisis and had to seek financial support from the government.
Pakistani Radio and Televisionwhich was established in was also brought under the strict control of the government. According to these new amendments, the publisher would be liable and prosecuted if a story was not to the liking of the administration even if it was factual and of national interest. These amendments were used to promote Haq's Islamist leanings and demonstrated the alliance between the military and religions leaders. Censorship during the Zia years was direct, concrete and dictatorial.
Newspapers were scrutinised; critical or undesired sections of an article censored. In the wake of Zia-ul-Haq's sudden death and the return of democracy, the way was paved to abate the draconian media laws through a revision of media legislation called the Revised PPO RPPO. Fromunder General Pervez Musharrafthe Pakistani media faced a decisive development that would lead to a boom in Pakistani electronic media and paved the way to it gaining political clout. New liberal media laws broke the state's monopoly on the electronic media.
TV broadcasting and FM radio licenses were issued to private media outlets.
The military's motivation for liberalising media licensing was based on an assumption that the Pakistani media could be used to strengthen national security and counter any perceived threats from India.
What prompted this shift was the military's experience during the two past confrontations with India.
One was the Kargil War and the other was the hijacking of the India Airliner by militants. In both these instances, the Pakistani military was left with no options to reciprocate because its electronic media were inferior to that of the Indian media.
Better electronic media capacity was needed in the future and thus the market for electronic media was liberalised. The justification was just as much a desire to counter the Indian media poweras it was a wish to set the media "free" with the rights that electronic media had in liberal, open societies.
The military thought it could still control the media and harness it if it strayed from what the regime believed was in the national interest - and in accordance with its own political agenda. This assessment however proved to be wrong as the media and in particular the new many new TV channels became a powerful force in civil society.
The media became an important actor in the process that led to fall of Musharraf and his regime. By providing extensive coverage of the Lawyer's Movement's struggle to get the chief justice reinstated, the media played a significant role in mobilising civil society.
This protest movement, with millions of Pakistanis taking to the streets in the name of having an independent judiciary and democratic rule, left Musharraf with little backing from civil society and the army. Ultimately, he had to call for elections. Recently, due to a renewed interplay between civil society organisations, the Lawyers' Movement and the electronic media, Pakistan's new President, Asif Ali Zardari had to give in to public and political pressure and reinstate the chief justice.
The emergence of powerful civil society actors was unprecedented in Pakistani history.