The pact between Hitler and Stalin that paved the way for World War II was The two totalitarian states had been at loggerheads for years. The government of Nazi Germany was a fascist, totalitarian state. Italian fascism was founded in Milan on March 23, , by Benito Mussolini, a former . What are two differences between a dictatorship and a totalitarian regime? 3. Strobe Talbott on Alan Bullock's “Hitler and Stalin” and Timothy Despite their differences in age, background and temperament — and.
Friedrich and Brzezinski argue, in agreement with Arendt, that Nazi and Stalinist leaders really believed in their respective ideologies and did not merely use them as tools to gain power.
Friedrich and Brzezinski also draw attention to the symbols used by Nazis and Stalinists to represent themselves. According to Friedrich and Brzezinski, the most effective terror is invisible to the people it affects. They simply develop a habit of acting in a conformist manner and not questioning authority, without necessarily being aware that this is what they are doing.
Propaganda is then used to maintain this appearance of popular consent.
Both Joseph Goebbels and Soviet propagandists sought to demonize their enemies and present a picture of a united people standing behind its leader to confront foreign threats. In both cases there was no attempt to convey complex ideological nuances to the masses, with the message being instead about a simplistic struggle between good and evil.
Both Nazi and Stalinist regimes produced two very different sets of propaganda — one for internal consumption and one for potential sympathizers in other countries. And both regimes would sometimes radically change their propaganda line as they made peace with a former enemy or got into a war with a former ally.
With no way for anyone to express criticism, the dictator has no way of knowing how much support he actually has among the general populace. Induring the early days of the Berlin Blockadethe Soviet leadership apparently believed that the population of West Berlin was sympathetic to Soviet Communism and that they would request to join the Soviet zone.
Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism - Wikipedia
But to declare that the struggle had been won would have meant to declare that most of the totalitarian features of the government were no longer needed. A secret police force, for instance, has no reason to exist if there are no dangerous traitors who need to be found. In the Stalinist USSR, the repressive apparatus was eventually turned against members of the Communist Party itself in the Great Purge and the show trials that accompanied it.
The Nazis did not turn inward towards purging their own party except in a limited way on two occasions the Night of the Long Knives and the aftermath of the 20 July plot. However, unlike Hannah Arendt, who held that the Gulag camps served no economic purpose, Friedrich and Brzezinski argue that they provided an important source of cheap labor for the Stalinist economy.
At the outset, Lewin and Kershaw identify similarities between the historical situations in Germany and Russia prior to the First World War and during that war.
Joseph Stalin - HISTORY
Both countries were ruled by authoritarian monarchies, who were under pressure to make concessions to popular demands. And both countries had expansionist foreign policies with a particular interest in Central and Eastern Europe. Stalinism had an absolute leader, but he was not essential. He could be replaced by another. Stalinism had an ideology which existed independently of Stalin.
In Stalinism, the bureaucratic apparatus was the foundation of the system, while in Nazism, the person of the leader was the foundation. This confusion produced competition between Nazi officials, as each of them attempted to prove that he was a more dedicated Nazi than his rivals, by engaging in ever more extreme policies.
This competition to please Hitler was, according to Mommsen, the real cause of Nazi irrationality. The Nazi regime, on the other hand, was much more personalized and depended entirely on Hitler, being unable to build any lasting institutions. Stalinism could exist without its leader. One of the topics they have studied is the question of how much power the dictator really held in the two regimes.
Werth identifies two main historiographical approaches in the study of the Stalinist regime: However, there was a potential for division between the leader and the state bureaucracy, due to the way that Nazism came to power — as part of an alliance with traditional conservative elites, industrialists, and the army. This produced a surprising difference between Nazism and Stalinism: When the Stalinist USSR conquered territory, it created smaller copies of itself and installed them as the governments of the occupied countries.
When Nazi Germany conquered territory, on the other hand, it did not attempt to create copies of the German government back home. At the top, high-ranking members of the Communist Party were arrested and executed under the claim that they had plotted against Stalin and in some cases they were forced to confess to imaginary crimes in show trials. At the bottom, the peasantry suffered the Holodomor famine especially in Ukraineand even outside of the famine years they were faced with very high grain quotas.
He lists them from smallest to largest. The second group consisted of mid-level Communist Party officials, who were subject to mass arrests and executions in the late s, particularly during the Great Purge. Eliminating them served a dual purpose: This type of petty crime became very widespread, and was often punished as if it were intentional sabotage motivated by political opposition to the USSR. The fourth and largest category consisted of ethnic groups that were subject to deportation, famine, or arbitrary arrests under the suspicion of being collectively disloyal to Stalin or to the Soviet state.
This included the Holodomor famine directed at the Ukrainiansthe deportation of ethnic groups suspected of pro-German sympathies such as the Volga Germansthe Crimean Tatarsthe Chechens and othersand eventually also persecution of ethnic Jewsespecially as Stalin grew increasingly antisemitic near the end of his life.
In Stalinism, there was a gulf between ideology and reality when it came to violence. The Soviet regime continuously denied that it was repressive, proclaimed itself a defender of peace, and sought to conceal all the evidence to the contrary. The Nazis aimed to eliminate their real or imagined political opponents, first in the Reich and later in the occupied territories during the war.
Some of these opponents were executed, while others were imprisoned in concentration camps.
Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism
The death penalty was used on a wide scale, even before the war. During the war, political repression was greatly expanded both inside Germany and especially in the newly occupied territories.
Totalitarian ideologies reject the existing society as corrupt, immoral, and beyond reform, project an alternative society in which these wrongs are to be redressed, and provide plans and programs for realizing the alternative order. These ideologies, supported by propaganda campaigns, demand total conformity on the part of the people. Totalitarian forms of organization enforce this demand for conformity.
Totalitarian societies are hierarchies dominated by one political party and usually by a single leader. A paramilitary secret police ensures compliance. Information and ideas are effectively organized through the control of television, radio, the press, and education at all levels. Dictatorship Totalitarian regimes differ from older concepts of dictatorship or tyranny. Totalitarian regimes seek to establish complete political, social and cultural control, whereas dictatorships seek limited, typically political, control.
Two types of totalitarianism can sometimes be distinguished: Traditionally, each is supported by different social classes. Right-wing totalitarian movements have generally drawn their popular support primarily from middle classes seeking to maintain the economic and social status quo. Left-wing totalitarianism has often developed from working class movements seeking, in theory, to eliminate, not preserve, class distinctions.
Right-wing totalitarianism has typically supported and enforced the private ownership of industrial wealth. A distinguishing feature of Communism, by contrast, is the collective ownership of such capital.
Totalitarian regimes mobilize and make use of mass political participation, and often are led by charismatic cult figures. Right-wing totalitarian regimes particularly the Nazis have arisen in relatively advanced societies, relying on the support of traditional economic elites to attain power.
In contrast, left-wing totalitarian regimes have arisen in relatively undeveloped countries through the unleashing of revolutionary violence and terror. Such violence and terror are also the primary tools of right-wing totalitarian regimes to maintain compliance with authority. Fascism Fascism was an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy and several other European countries after as a reaction against the profound political and social changes brought about by World War I and the spread of socialism and Communism.
Its name was derived from the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax. Italian fascism was founded in Milan on March 23,by Benito Mussolini, a former revolutionary socialist leader.
His followers, mostly war veterans, were organized along paramilitary lines and wore black shirts as uniforms. The early Fascist program was a mixture of left- and right-wing ideas that emphasized intense Nationalism, productivism, anti-socialism, elitism, and the need for a strong leader.
In that year it elected 35 members to parliament. The Philosophy of Fascism The intellectual roots of Fascism can be traced to the voluntaristic philosophers who argued that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.
Arthur Schopenhauer was a German philosopher who held that the will is the underlying and ultimate reality and that the whole phenomenal world is the only expression of will. Human beings have free will only in the sense that everyone is the free expression of a will and that we therefore are not the authors of our own destinies, characters, or behavior, he wrote.
He theorized that space, time, and causality were not absolute principles but only a function of the brain, concepts parallel to the scientific discoveries of relativistic physics two generations later.
The ancient empires grew out of a master morality, and the religions of the day out of the slave morality which denigrates the rich and powerful, rationalism, and sexuality. Henri Bergson was a French philosopher of Jewish parents who was the leading rejectionist of the concept that scientific principles can explain all of existence. He asserted that metaphysical principles also apply.
George Sorel was a French social philosopher who had a major influence upon Mussolini.
Sorel believed that societies naturally became decadent and disorganized, and this inevitable decay could only be delayed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence to obtain power. His anti-democratic, anti-liberal views and pessimistic view about the natural life-cycle of a society were antithetical to most of his contemporaries.
Fascist Ideology Fascist ideology was largely the work of the neo-idealist philosopher, Giovanni Gentile. Violence as a creative force was an important characteristic of the Fascist philosophy. A special feature of Italian Fascism was the attempt to eliminate the class struggle from history through nationalism and the corporate state.
Mussolini was forced into compromises with big business and the Roman Catholic Church. The corporate state was never fully implemented.