Pros and Cons of the UK-US Special Relationship
The Special Relationship is an unofficial term often used to describe the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States. . The intense level of military co- operation between the UK and US began with the Toronto: Strathearn Books Limited. The UK and US: The myth of the special relationship . Yet, with historical institutional ties of the military and intelligence variety dating back to Alasdair's latest book is "In The Shadow Of The Cotton Tree: A Diary of Second. A century is a long time in U.S.-British relations. by British codebreakers, known as the Zimmerman telegram, proposing a military alliance.
We should not abandon our special relationship with the United States and Canada about the atomic bomb and we should aid the United States to guard this weapon as a sacred trust for the maintenance of peace.
Neither the sure prevention of war, nor the continuous rise of world organization will be gained without what I have called the fraternal association of the English-speaking peoples Fraternal association requires not only the growing friendship and mutual understanding between our two vast but kindred systems of society, but the continuance of the intimate relationship between our military advisers, leading to common study of potential dangers, the similarity of weapons and manuals of instructions, and to the interchange of officers and cadets at technical colleges.
It should carry with it the continuance of the present facilities for mutual security by the joint use of all Naval and Air Force bases in the possession of either country all over the world. There is however an important question we must ask ourselves. Would a special relationship between the United States and the British Commonwealth be inconsistent with our over-riding loyalties to the World Organisation?
I reply that, on the contrary, it is probably the only means by which that organisation will achieve its full stature and strength.
History of the U.S.-UK Special Relationship and U.S. Policy
In the opinion of one international relations specialist: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the British Chief of the Defence Staff in While most government officials on both sides have supported the Special Relationship, there have been sharp critics. British journalist Guy Arnold b. Instead Arnold calls for closer relationships with Europe and Russia so as to rid "itself of the US incubus. Following the end of the Second World War the joint command structure was disbanded, but close military cooperation between the nations resumed in the early s with the start of the Cold War.
In Julythe first American deployment began with the stationing of B bombers. Following the end of the Cold War, which was the main rationale for their presence, the number of US facilities in the UK has been reduced in number in line with the US military worldwide.
Despite this, these bases have been used extensively in support of various peacekeeping and offensive operations of the s and early 21st century. Nuclear weapons development[ edit ] The Quebec Agreement of paved the way for the two countries to develop atomic weapons side by side, the UK handing over vital documents from its own Tube Alloys project and sending a delegation to assist in the work of the Manhattan Project.
Policy & History
The agreement gave the UK access to the facilities at the Nevada Test Siteand from it conducted a total of 21 underground tests there before the cessation of testing in The UK also operates several American designs, including the Javelin anti-tank missileM rocket artillerythe Apache gunshipC Hercules and C Globemaster transport aircraft. Other areas of cooperation[ edit ] Intelligence sharing[ edit ] RAF Menwith Hill near HarrogateEngland, which provides communications and intelligence support services to both the United Kingdom and the United States A cornerstone of the Special Relationship is the collecting and sharing of intelligence.
National Security Agencythe U. In trade and finance, the Special Relationship has been described as "well-balanced", with London 's "light-touch" regulation in recent years attracting a massive outflow of capital from New York. American and British investors share entrepreneurial attitudes towards the housing marketand the fashion and music industries of each country are major influences on their counterparts.
Foreign Secretary William Hague on 9 Septembersaid: We are not only each other's largest investors in each of our countries, one to the other, but the fact is that every day almost one million people go to work in the United States for British companies that are in the United States, just as more than one million people go to work here in Great Britain for U. So we are enormously tied together, obviously. And we are committed to making both the U. The first example was the close relationship between Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt, who were in fact distantly related.
President Woodrow Wilson and Prime Minister David Lloyd George in Paris had been the only previous leaders of the two nations to meet face-to-face,  but had enjoyed nothing that could be described as a "special relationship", although Lloyd George's wartime Foreign SecretaryArthur Balfourgot on well with Wilson during his time in the United States and helped convince the previously skeptical president to enter World War I.
Churchill spent much time and effort cultivating the relationship, which paid dividends for the war effort.
Two great architects of the Special Relationship on a practical level were Field Marshal Sir John Dill and General George Marshallwhose excellent personal relations and senior positions Roosevelt was especially close to Marshalloiled the wheels of the alliance considerably.
Major links were created during the war, such as the Combined Chiefs of Staff. Britain, previously somewhat the senior partner, had found herself the junior beginning in The diplomatic policy was thus two-pronged, encompassing strong personal support and equally forthright military and political aid.
These two have always operated in tandem; that is to say, the best personal relationships between British prime ministers and American presidents have always been those based around shared goals. Early in the cold war, with Germany and France laid low, and the appearance of an awkward Soviet Union on the horizon, the Atlantic alliance was the only option.
The dynamics of the cold war largely worked to ensure that it remained so.
Arnold notably underplays the impact of the cold war on solidifying the alliance, I might add. Some key elements of the cold war — the Hungarian and Czech uprisings, for example — do not figure much. At such a low point, choosing huffily to distance ourselves from the only super-power in the west could simply have left the UK isolated and aggrieved.
In any case, we must acknowledge that every British prime minister — with the exception of Heath — and most of the British elite, has been Atlanticist in orientation since Opting out of the special relationship was never on the table. Arnold has, I feel, overstated the disadvantages of the special relationship for the UK.
Embassy in London, January 12, As well as being responsible for the work of the various sections of the Embassy, the Ambassador coordinates the activities of all departments and agencies of the United States Government with representatives in Britain.
The current Ambassador is Robert Wood Johnson. The DCM is responsible for the day to-day running of the Embassy and also undertakes high-level representation, negotiation, appraisal, and reporting duties. Representatives from the U. State Department and 26 other U. Government agencies manage portfolios concerning economic, commercial and agricultural affairs, consular and immigration issues, customs, transportation, and law enforcement activities, as well as political and military relations, and public affairs.
Mission to the United Kingdom includes the U.