World War I for Kids: Russian Revolution
Visit Live · Birth · Bar/Bat Mitzvah · Weddings & Marriage · Conversion Exploring the ancestry of the mastermind of the Bolshevik revolution. he has published a book, Lenin's Jewish Question, about the ancestry of the man Thus , by the time we reach their son Vladimir Ilyich, we are four generations . Leon Trotsky. Leon Trotsky on Lenin: Leon Trotsky's essay on Vladimir Lenin is historically where he began the systematic study of Marx and first entered into relations with . Leon Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary, Marxist theorist, and Soviet politician whose Stalin presented Mercader with an Order of Lenin in absentia. . Because of their marriage, Trotsky and his wife were allowed to be exiled to the same.
Charismatic and a compelling orator, by Gapon was organising factory workers into militant sections. He was hanged by SR agents in after they discovered his contacts with the Okhrana. See also Bloody Sunday Adolf Joffe was a communist revolutionary, diplomat and politician. Closely aligned with Trotsky, Joffe was involved in the Petrograd Soviet during He spent several years exiled in Siberia before returning in and eventually supporting the Bolsheviks.
He later led the negotiating team at Brest-Litovsk, though the unpopularity of the treaty reduced his influence in the party. He committed suicide in Lev Kamenev was a long-serving Bolshevik revolutionary and, later, an important Soviet political leader.
He later became chairman of the Moscow Soviet, a Politburo member and with Grigory Zinoviev was instrumental in the rise of Stalin. Fanya Kaplan was a young Jewish woman who joined the Socialist-Revolutionaries in her teens.
In she was sentenced to life imprisonment for involvement in terrorist acts, though she was later released. After shooting Lenin twice at a Moscow factory, Kaplan was arrested, tortured and executed. Despite suspicions to the contrary, it seems she acted alone rather than with the backing of the SRs or another group. Alexander Kerensky was a left-wing political leader who vied with Lenin for control of Russia during the tumultuous months of Kerensky trained as a lawyer and provided advice to individuals who had been mistreated by the government.
In he was elected to the fourth Duma as a member of the labour-aligned Trudovik party; he quickly took a lead role into investigations into the Lena River shootings that year. In March Kerensky was appointed Minister of Justice in the new Provisional Government, the only socialist in the cabinet.
A series of government breakdowns enabled him to rise to War Minister May and then prime minister Julylargely because of his ambition and brilliant oratory. By September he had alienated those on the political Left and Right, while the Provisional Government commanded little support from either the people or the military. Kerensky fled the Winter Palace during the October Revolution, married an Australian woman and made his home in the United States, where he worked as an academic.
See also Alexander Kerensky Alexandra Kollontai was arguably the leading female socialist revolutionary, particularly after Born into a Ukrainian military family, Kollontai married young but the marriage failed, in part because her true interest was in Marxist politics.
After the outbreak of World War I, Kollontai spent time in several European countries, where she attempted to convince socialist groups to oppose the war. Kollontai is best known for leading Soviet social reform, particularly improvements to the rights and conditions of women.
She held no position of domestic influence thereafter but served as Soviet ambassador to Mexico and Sweden. Nadezhda Krupskaya was the wife of Vladimir Lenin and a notable Bolshevik revolutionary in her own right.
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Krupskaya was born in St Petersburg to a lower middle-class family that had previously boasted noble titles. She was a keen student with an interest in literature, history and politics.
After completing her own education the young Krupskaya worked as a tutor while participating in political discussion groups during her spare time. She met Lenin in and they married four years later, during one of his periods in exile in Siberia.
A member of the Social Democrats from the outset, she voted with Lenin at the party congress and thus became part of the Bolshevik faction. Krupskaya did not always agree with her husband, nor did she obediently yield to him.
Leon Trotsky on Lenin
After Krupskaya held high positions in both the Communist Party and the Soviet government, particularly in the fields of education where she was deputy commissar and the Soviet youth movement Komsomol. Vladimir Lenin was the Bolshevik leader, the instigator of the October Revolution and, until his death, the dominant figure in the new society.
The Ulyanovs were politically aware and liberal minded, regularly discussing — and criticising — Russian government and society.
This had a profound effect on the young Lenin, who began studies in law while mixing with radical student political groups. By the mids Lenin had met his future wife, Krupskaya, and was involved in Marxist groups in St Petersburg.
In Lenin was forced out of western Russia and into exile, where he would spend 18 of the next 22 years. He lived as a European nomad, spending time in London, Paris, Munich and Geneva and writing extensively about Marxism and contemporary political and economic systems.
In Lenin published What is to Be Done?
Russian Revolution who's who - revolutionaries
Lenin was soon forced back into foreign exile but the abdication of the tsar in allowed him to return to Russia. A member of the liberal-democratic Kadets, Lvov sat in the Duma from its formation in and also participated in charitable causes and war relief.
He served as prime minister in the Provisional Government between March and Julyafter which he escaped to France and lived out his days in exile. Julius Martov was an influential Russian Marxist who was the most prominent member of the Mensheviks. Born to a Jewish middle-class family, Martov became interested in left-wing politics as a student.
His early years were spent working closely with Lenin; indeed the two were considered friends. He joined the SDs in and, with Lenin, founded the party newspaper Iskra. Martov became the de facto leader of the Mensheviks.
He argued the party should agitate against bourgeois government but not directly attempt to overthrow it. Unlike right-wing elements in the Menshevik movement, he opposed World War I, along similar lines to Lenin.
Martov is perhaps best known for walking out of the Soviet congress the day after the October Revolution. He returned to sit as a delegate in the short-lived Constituent Assembly but played no significant role in Russian politics thereafter.
Karl Marx was a German political philosopher whose writings provided the ideological impetus for a revolution in Russia. Born in Prussia to a middle-class Jewish family, Marx was trained and worked briefly as a lawyer — but his true interest was in political and economic theory, particularly the works of Georg Hegel. In Marx began a collaboration with Friedrich Engels that saw them undertake critiques of capitalist economies and societies in Europe.
Marx himself died in exile and in comparative poverty and was buried in London. The bourgeois revolution could no longer satisfy the masses. The task of the proletariat was to arm, to strengthen the power of the Soviets, to rouse the country districts and to prepare for the conquest of supreme power in the name of the reconstruction of society on a Socialist basis.
This far-reaching programme was not only unwelcome to those engaged in propagating patriotic Socialism, but even roused opposition among the Bolsheviks themselves. He foresaw that the distrust of the bourgeoisie and of the Provisional Government would grow stronger daily, that the Bolshevik party would obtain a majority in the Soviets and that the supreme power would pass into their hands.
The small daily Pravda became at once in his hands a powerful instrument for the overthrow of bourgeois society. The policy of coalition with the bourgeoisie pursued by the patriotic Socialists, and the hopeless attack which the Allies forced the Russian Army to assume at the front—both these roused the masses and led to armed demonstrations in Petrograd in the first days of July.
The struggle against Bolshevism became most intense. These purported to prove that Lenin was acting under the orders of the German general staff.
The popular movement was crushed. The hounding of Lenin reached its height. The Bolsheviks obtained a majority in the Soviets of Petrograd and Moscow. Lenin demanded decisive action to seize the supreme power, and on his side began an unremitting fight against the hesitations of the leaders of the party. He wrote articles and pamphlets, letters, both official and private, examining the question of the seizure of supreme power from every angle, refuting objections and dispelling doubts.
The rising against the Provisional Government coincided with the opening of the second Congress of the Soviets on Oct. On that day, Lenin, after being in hiding for three and a half months, appeared in the Smolny and from there personally directed the fight.
In the night sitting of Oct. The Bolshevik majority, supported by the left wing of the Socialist revolutionaries, declared that supreme power was now vested in the Soviets. Thus Lenin passed straight from the log cabin where he had been hiding from persecution to the place of highest authority. The proletarian revolution spread quickly. Having obtained the land of the landed estate owners, the peasants forsook the Socialist revolutionaries and supported the Bolsheviks.
The Soviets became masters of the situation both in the towns and the country districts. In such circumstances the constituent assembly which was elected in Nov. The conflict between the two stages of the revolution was now at hand. Lenin did not hesitate for an instant. On the night of Jan. The dictatorship of the proletariatsaid Lenin, meant the greatest possible degree of actual and not merely formal democracy for the toiling majority of the people.
Sclerosis attacked his cerebral arteries. At the beginning of his doctors forbade him daily work. From June to Aug. At the beginning of Oct.
The disease progressed and he lost completely the power of speech. His work for the party came to an end, and very soon his life also. Lenin died on Jan. His funeral was the occasion for an unexampled manifestation of love and grief on the part of millions.
The theory of the proletarian revolution—the methods and tactics to be pursued—constitutes the fundamental content of Leninism which as an international system forms the culminating point of Marxism.
Leon Trotsky - Wikipedia
He never knew hesitation in the fight against those he considered the enemies of the working class. In his passionate struggle there was never any personal element. He fulfilled what he considered to be the demands of an inevitable historical process. Lenin combined the ability to use the materialistic dialectic as a method of scientific orientation in social developments with the deep intuition of the true leader.
He was of middle or rather below the middle height, with the plebeian features of the Slavonic type of face, brightened, however, by piercing eyes; and his powerful forehead and his still more powerful head gave him a marked distinction. He was tireless in work to an unparalleled degree. He appreciated and loved to the full science, art and culture, but he never forgot that as yet these things are the property of a small minority.
The simplicity of his literary and oratorical style expressed the extreme concentration of his spiritual forces bent on a single aim. In personal intercourse Lenin was even-tempered, courteous and attentive, especially to the weak and oppressed and to children.