Paragraphs structure and linking
Good communication is an important part of all relationships and is an By definition, communication is the transfer of information from one place to another. . Concentrate on the major problem, and don't get distracted by other minor problems. Once you have activated a link navigate to the end of the list to view its. Towards the end of this stage, and hopefully at other times throughout it, it is not for couples to use to evaluate the relationship and their ability to be part of an. Given that the choice of life partner is by far the most important thing in life smart, otherwise-logical people end up choosing a life partnership a life partner and take part in a healthy relationship, if they charted out a by bumping into them randomly or being introduced to them from within your little pool.
Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior. Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing.
Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life. Securely attached individuals usually use their partners for emotion regulation so they prefer to have their partners in close proximity. Preoccupied people are normally uneasy and vigilant towards any threat to the relationship and tend to be needy and jealous. Dismissing individuals are low on anxiety over abandonment and high in avoidance of intimacy.
Dismissing people are usually self-reliant and uninterested in intimacy and are independent and indifferent towards acquiring romantic partners. They are very fearful of rejection, mistrustful of others, and tend to be suspicious and shy in everyday life. Attachment styles are created during childhood but can adapt and evolve to become a different attachment style based on individual experiences.
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On the contrary, a good romantic relationship can take a person from an avoidant attachment style to more of a secure attachment style. Romantic love The capacity for love gives depth to human relationships, brings people closer to each other physically and emotionally, and makes people think expansively about themselves and the world. Attraction — Premeditated or automatic, attraction can occur between acquaintances, coworkers, lovers, etc.
Studies have shown that attraction can be susceptible to influence based on context and externally induced arousal, with the caveat that participants be unaware of the source of their arousal.
A study by Cantor, J. As supported by a series of studies, Zillman and colleagues showed that a preexisting state of arousal can heighten reactions to affective stimuli. One commonly studied factor is physical proximity also known as propinquity. The MIT Westgate studies famously showed that greater physical proximity between incoming students in a university residential hall led to greater relationship initiation.
Another important factor in the initiation of new relationships is similarity. Put simply, individuals tend to be attracted to and start new relationships with those who are similar to them. These similarities can include beliefs, rules, interests, culture, education, etc. Individuals seek relationships with like others because like others are most likely to validate shared beliefs and perspectives, thus facilitating interactions that are positive, rewarding and without conflict.
Development — Development of interpersonal relationships can be further split into committed versus non-committed romantic relationships, which have different behavioral characteristics.
More committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater resource display, appearance enhancement, love and care, and verbal signs of possession. In contrast, less committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater jealousy induction.
In terms of gender differences, men used greater resource display than women, who used more appearance enhancement as a mate-retention strategy than men.
Some important qualities of strong, enduring relationships include emotional understanding and effective communication between partners. Idealization of one's partner is linked to stronger interpersonal bonds. Idealization is the pattern of overestimating a romantic partner's positive virtues or underestimating a partner's negative faults in comparison to the partner's own self-evaluation.
In general, individuals who idealize their romantic partners tend to report higher levels of relationship satisfaction. The presence of all three components characterizes consummate lovethe most durable type of love. In addition, the presence of intimacy and passion in marital relationships predicts marital satisfaction.
Also, commitment is the best predictor of relationship satisfaction, especially in long-term relationships. Positive consequences of being in love include increased self-esteem and self-efficacy. The emotion of love comes from the anticipation of pleasure. Particular duties arise from each person's particular situation in relation to others.
The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: Juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence and seniors have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors. A focus on mutuality is prevalent in East Asian cultures to this day.
Minding relationships[ edit ] The mindfulness theory of relationships shows how closeness in relationships may be enhanced.
Minding is the "reciprocal knowing process involving the nonstop, interrelated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of persons in a relationship. Jung 's theory of psychological types. Socionics allocates 16 types of the relations — from most attractive and comfortable up to disputed.
The understanding of a nature of these relations helps to solve a number of problems of the interpersonal relations, including aspects of psychological and sexual compatibility. The researches of married couples by Aleksandr Bukalov et al. The study of socionic type allocation in casually selected married couples confirmed the main rules of the theory of intertype relations in socionics.
Culture of appreciation[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Relationships and communication
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message After studying married couples for many years, psychologist John Gottman has proposed the theory of the "magic ratio" for successful marriages. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through an extended and flowing sequence of points and illustrations. This entails work at the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph.
The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to your argument. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences, and develop your use of linking words by which the various sentences of a paragraph are bound together. It takes experience and practice to develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has run its course.
Examine the general guide to essay writing to get some sense of how the paragraphs, or 'idea units' as they have also been called, have been constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear.
The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph.
Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, and practised examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.
The argument should develop through the language you use and therefore in a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects. It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to get rid of material that is not directly relevant.
Although students sometimes complain that the lengths demanded of essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short. Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically, without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and coherently, so do not leap about from point to point.
Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and the one which follows. If you do leave one part of the essay to move onto another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.
After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about?
Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the whole process. Strong sentences are essential in terms of the flow of your essay. When signalling the fact that they now want to begin a discussion about the imagery of the text in question, students often begin paragraphs with a sentence such as the following: What is wrong with this particular sentence?
To start with there is no real need to introduce the subject so mechanically: Secondly, as the student has chosen to write about the imagery there is no need to state that it is important. If it was not important then the student should not have chosen to write about it. Please note that there would be no objection to a sentence such as 'I will now go on to discuss the imagery, which is fundamental to a full understanding of the story', although it would be even better if the type of imagery was identified.
This says something different. Do not repeat these phrases mechanically in your essays - the imagery will not always be absolutely key to understanding the story.
Use your common sense. You can introduce the subject of imagery in a strong sentence, at the beginning of a paragraph, by simply starting to discuss it straightaway. If you have identified a number of images, metaphors, etc. As an example, here is a paragraph which starts to deal with the literary language in Graham Greene's ' The Destructors '.
This paragraph would ideally come about a third or half way into the essay, as it comes after the introduction and signals the fact that some analysis has already been carried out. Suggested Model A discussion of the imagery can reinforce the general points made above; broadly speaking there are two main sets of images and metaphors, dealing firstly with the tensions between the individual and the community, to which I will turn later, and secondly focusing on Christian symbolism.
A number of the images have religious connotations. It is significant that Old Misery's house was designed by Christopher Wren, who was the seventeenth century architect of St. By mentioning Wren Greene is attempting to show the presence of the past in the present and how irrelevant it seems to the boys: Their experience of massive destruction has eroded references and deprived them of values. Instead of the integration and shared common values illustrated by, among others, the fact that Wren designed both a public place of worship and a private home, the post-war period leaves them with fragmentation and mutual distrust: For him 'All this hate and love [is]soft, it's hooey.
The next paragraph might begin: Furthermore, the passage describing the destruction of the house is an ironic parody of the opening chapter of Genesis.
The vocabulary is similar: Blackie notices that 'chaos had advanced', an ironic reversal of God's imposing of form on a void. Furthermore, the phrase 'streaks of light came in through the closed shutters where they worked with the seriousness of creators', used in the context of destruction, also parodies the creation of light and darkness in the early passages of the Biblical book.
Images and metaphors concerning the individual and community are centred on Trevor, and are also linked to the theme of leadership. Notice that the opening sentence in each paragraph is a strong one. There are several strong points about the first paragraph: The main extended images are mentioned in the first sentence, which is preferable to 'I am now going to discuss the imagery of Graham Greene's story. Importantly, whilst it is obvious that there is to be some reference to ideas already mentioned, it is also clear that there is to be no repetition.
Instead, the analysis is to be deepened and extended. The anxious reader, who might be wondering why the important theme of the individual and the community has not been mentioned, can relax and enjoy the analysis of the religious symbolism in the full knowledge that the former theme has not been neglected.
In other words the writer is actively engaging with Greene's story. What of the second paragraph? Firstly one might ask why a second paragraph is needed, given that the theme is still that of religion. True, but the first paragraph is becoming quite long, it is reaching the 'natural' length of a paragraph. There are no hard or fast rules and regulations here - no writing committee has decreed that a paragraph should contain an ideal number of words or sentences or run a certain length over a page.
Extended writing practice will give you a 'feel' and an instinct for realising that a paragraph is complete and it is time to start a new one. More importantly here there is a very strong sense that the first paragraph in the model is 'full'.
The writer has identified a link between the house and the ideological vacuum in which the gang exist and has tried to interpret and explain it. The theme is still religion, but the writer is now going to approach a different aspect of it.
The third paragraph begins to produce what has been promised: Note how this is done.
There is no need to state mechanically that this is the theme that is now to be discussed. It has already been anticipated and the 'full' nature of the first sentence makes clear what is being discussed.