Automotive industry in Russia - Wikipedia
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And since trying to discern the size and shape of the scandal is an exercise in uncertainty, we focus our attention on the most likely outcome, which is that the story goes a little deeper than what we have already discovered. Say, that Donald Trump Jr.
A minority of analysts, mostly but not exclusively on the right, have promoted aggressively exculpatory interpretations of the known facts, in which every suspicious piece of evidence turns out to have a surprisingly innocent explanation.
And it is possible, though unlikely, that every trail between Trump Tower and the Kremlin extends no farther than its point of current visibility. What is missing from our imagination is the unlikely but possible outcome on the other end: After all, treating a small probability as if it were nonexistent is the very error much of the news media made in covering the presidential horse race. And while the body of publicly available information about the Russia scandal is already extensive, the way it has been delivered — scoop after scoop of discrete nuggets of information — has been disorienting and difficult to follow.
A case like this presents an easy temptation for conspiracy theorists, but we can responsibly speculate as to what lies at the end of this scandal without falling prey to their fallacies. Conspiracy theories tend to attract people far from the corridors of power, and they often hypothesize vast connections within or between governments and especially intelligence agencies.
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One of the oddities of the Russia scandal is that many of the most exotic and sinister theories have come from people within government and especially within the intelligence field. In the summer ofRobert Hannigan, head of the U. The contents of these communications have not been disclosed, but what Brennan learned obviously unsettled him profoundly.The Greatest Fails of Russian Spies. Part 1: GRU Clowns in Netherlands.
In congressional testimony on Russian election interference last year, Brennan hinted that some Americans might have betrayed their country. The Russians may have something on him personally that they could always roll out and make his life more difficult.
Suppose we are currently making the same mistake we made at the outset of this drama — suppose the dark crevices of the Russia scandal run not just a little deeper but a lot deeper.
It would mean that when Special Counsel Robert Mueller closes in on the president and his inner circle, possibly beginning this summer, Trump may not merely rail on Twitter but provoke a constitutional crisis. And it would mean the Russia scandal began far earlier than conventionally understood and ended later — indeed, is still happening.
As Trump arranges to meet face-to-face and privately with Vladimir Putin later this month, the collusion between the two men metastasizing from a dark accusation into an open alliance, it would be dangerous not to consider the possibility that the summit is less a negotiation between two heads of state than a meeting between a Russian-intelligence asset and his handler.
A crazy quilt of connections. Click or tap to zoom in. Getty Images It is often said that Donald Trump has had the same nationalistic, zero-sum worldview forever. Yes, his racism and mendacity have been evident since his youth, but those who have traced the evolution of his hypernationalism all settle on one year in particular: There are only a couple of examples of him commenting on world politics before then.
One possible explanation is that Trump published The Art of the Deal, which sped up his transformation from an aggressive, publicity-seeking New York developer to a national symbol of capitalism.
But the timing for this account does not line up perfectly — the book came out on November 1, and Trump had begun opining loudly on trade and international politics two months earlier. The other important event from that year is that Trump visited Moscow.
During the Soviet era, Russian intelligence cast a wide net to gain leverage over influential figures abroad. The practice continues to this day.
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The Russians would lure or entrap not only prominent politicians and cultural leaders, but also people whom they saw as having the potential for gaining prominence in the future. InSoviet ambassador Yuri Dubinin met Trump in New York, flattered him with praise for his building exploits, and invited him to discuss a building in Moscow. In latethe Russian leadership enacted legislation to create special economic zones SEZ with the aim of encouraging investments by foreign automotive companies.
The benefits of operating in the special economic zones include tax allowances, exemption from asset and land taxes and protection against changes in the tax regime.
Kaluga has been especially successful in attracting foreign companies, as has been Kaliningrad Oblast.
Russia's automotive industry was hit hard by the late s recession. Production of passenger cars dropped from 1, units in to justunits in Lorry production fell fromto 91, in the same period.
The tariffs are linked to the engine size of the vehicle. The increased duties led to protests in Russian cities, most notably in Vladivostokwhere the importation of Japanese cars is an important sector of the city's economy. The move was completed inand the factory now employs about locals.
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It was planned to produce 13, cars in Vladivostok in Under the scheme, buyers of new cars could receive a subsidy of up torubles 20, USD. Lada cars accounted for The economy car Lada Priora topped the list with 84, sold units.
Lada was expected to considerably increase sales following the car scrappage scheme launched in March The higher-end Lada Kalina was the fourth most sold car in Russia inselling 52, units that year. The Avtoperevozchik magazine declared GAZelle as the most successful vehicle of in the Russian automotive market. It currently employs more thanpeople, and its Lada models dominate the Russian car market. Its plant is located in the south-east part of the city of Moscow. Avtoframos is a joint venture between France's Renault and the Moscow city administration, but is majority owned by Renault.
It is also one of the largest companies in the whole Russian automotive industry.
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Inthe company launched an improved version, called GAZelle Business. In it sold 6, buses in the small-class, 1, in the medium class and 1, in the large class. The company employs around 45, people. Marussia B2 The Marussia brand, produced by Marussia Motorsbecame the first modern sports car and the first supercar produced in Russia.
On 10 September the first Marussia Motors show room opened in Moscow.
Marussia Motors declared bankruptcy and ceased both support for their F1 team  and overall trading in Another short-lived project was the Yo-mobilea city car that could burn both gasoline and natural gas and was connected to a pair of electric motors. The car was introduced on 13 December in Moscow, a product of a joint venture between Yarovita producer of trucks based in St.
Petersburg, Russia and the Onexim investment group, headed by Mikhail Prokhorovwho was the leader and financier of the project.