Focal point (game theory) - Wikipedia
Additional information: The International Conference will be held at the Charles B . Wang Center. You can find directions here. Our website also provides you. In game theory, a focal point (also called Schelling point) is a solution that people will tend to Where and when do you meet them? How We Naturally Organize in Games of Coordination – Mind Your Decisions". cypenv.info This article introduces the "meeting game" and shows how to solve for it's a common introductory example in many game theory textbooks.
Landmarks in Space and Time But some of the needles seem to be converging. Two pairs of women -- both from out of town -- are thinking about the Empire State Building. In this game, all that matters is if someone else thinks they same way you do.
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Similar situations come up in real life all the time. If you are buying on eBay, should you bid high early or jump in at the last second? It depends on what you believe your competitors are thinking. In the dating game, do you wait by the phone, waiting for the other person to call, or risk it and call them first?
The same logic applies in more serious "games" -- like war. And if they're going to invade in Normandy, should they pretend that they are going to invade in Normandy? All six teams narrowed the list of places to meet, but then they had to decide on a time to get there. If you're trying to find a stranger you have to know where -- and when -- to look.
Just as there are landmarks in the physical world, there are natural landmarks in time, with numbers. Noon is a clear time. Zero is a clear number," says Nalebuff. Imagine, for instance, that you're trying to quit smoking.
So if you're going to stop smoking, its best to go cold turkey because zero actually has meaning. Convergence David and Anthony have chosen Times Square as their location. They almost pass Ian and Seth near a police booth, but then just miss each other.
They decide to try the Empire State Building -- where two other teams are already headed. Less than three hours after starting their searches, three teams are within blocks of one another in Times Square, and the other three are converging on the Empire State Building.
Near, the Empire State Building, Myrna and Cynthia go to a drugstore to buy supplies to tape signs to their clothes and backpacks.ABC News: Mission Impossible: Lost in NYC
As they make their way up to the 86th-floor viewing platform, Courtney and Lydia are getting out of a cab out front. Not only have they thought of the same place as Myrna and Cynthia, they go for sign-making materials at the same store the other women left just moments before. Myrna and Cynthia spend several minutes circling this floor without luck, and as they're about to go to the nd-floor observation deck, they see Courtney and Lydia.
For the women, the game played out beautifully -- imagining the strategy of the other team and making signs when they got within range. As one participant said: There is nothing that makes Grand Central Terminal a location with a higher payoff you could just as easily meet someone at a bar or the public library reading roombut its tradition as a meeting place raises its salience and therefore makes it a natural "focal point".
For example, imagine two bicycles headed towards each other and in danger of crashing. Avoiding collision becomes a coordination game where each player's winning choice depends on the other player's choice.
Each player in this case has the choice to go straight, swerve to the left or swerve to the right.
Both players want to avoid crashing, but neither knows what the other will do. It seems a natural focal point in places using right-hand traffic. This idea of anti-coordination game is also apparent in the game of chickenwhich involves two cars racing toward each other on a collision course and in which the driver who first decides to swerve is seen as a coward, while no driver swerving results in a fatal collision for both.
Mission Impossible: In Search of Strangers in New York City
Research[ edit ] After Schelling wrote about it, a number of experimental investigations have been performed on the efficacy of focal point in coordination situations and research has generally validated it.
A review by Isoni et al.
- The 30th International Conference on Game Theory
- Focal point (game theory)
In Crawford et al.