Pair of kings meet the parents 002

Empirically Derived Patterns of Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth: A Latent Profile Analysis

pair of kings meet the parents 002

Cecil told her, that the greatest part of the nation had, ever since her father's reign , ELIZABETH was not dissatisfied to learn, that her avowed enemies had met nor was even the earl of Lenox, the King's father, averse to the design‖. to re∣pair to his ordinary; and he seems to imply, that the bishops themselves. Youth and/or their parents completed measures of several core . disorder could not meet criteria for any bipolar spectrum disorder themselves; .. characterized by irritability and co-occurring symptoms, all ps . one randomly-selected participant from each sibling pair or trio ( participants total). nity, such as flight reservation or meeting scheduling. Second, because the . A pair subset (henceforth, MC) passed a number of repli- cations (Miller and Charles, ; Resnik, ), and . ), σ − for the different BS texts. . people marked family and mother as much stronger 10 King's College Rd.

Symptoms of depression and ADHD were included because they often co-occur with irritability and anxiety e. Based on previous research e. Further, we hypothesized that the LPA would not conform to traditional diagnostic boundaries, such that the target conditions or diagnoses for which youth were initially evaluated would be distributed across the obtained classes. Method Participants Five hundred and nine children and adolescents between the ages of 7 and 18 years were included in the LPA.

Parents gave written informed consent and youth gave written assent. Participants were recruited through advertisements. The clinical groups included: First-degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder could not meet criteria for any bipolar spectrum disorder themselves; other diagnoses were allowed.

Diagnoses were based on best-estimate procedures generated in a consensus conference led by a senior psychiatrist. Exclusion criteria for all groups included: IQ below 70 or the presence of a severely-impairing pervasive developmental disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, substance use within the preceding three months, neurological disorder, or unstable medical illness.

Items probe both irritable mood e. The ARI is both valid and reliable Stringaris et al. Items refer to symptoms in the preceding three months and are rated on 3-point Likert scales. The CDI is a validated measure of self-reported depressive symptoms in youth. Each item presents three different statements referring to thoughts, feelings, and behaviors during the past two weeks; respondents select the statement that best corresponds to their functioning e. Items refer to child functioning during the preceding month and are rated on 4-point Likert scales, which are summed to create various different symptom scales.

The CGAS is a single-item, clinician-rated measure of overall child functioning in the past month. Scores range from 1 lowest functioning to highest functioningand the scale includes behavioral anchors at point increments to aid clinician ratings.

The CGAS has good construct validity and test-retest reliability e. The timing of administration of the symptom measures relative to the diagnostic interview varied across participants.

As described below, selection of data for the LPA maximized available cross-sectional data for each participant. Research personnel provided instructions on the measures and answered any questions.

Empirically Derived Patterns of Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth: A Latent Profile Analysis

Clinicians also completed CGAS ratings. We selected data based on the largest number, or set, of these six measures that were administered to that participant and parent within a one-month time interval.

If a participant had more than one set of measures meeting these criteria, the first set that was completed was selected. In addition, if data for one item on any measure were missing, the score for this item was imputed using the mean item score for that measure.

If data for more than one item were missing on any measure, that measure was considered incomplete and excluded from the dataset. However, the presence of missing data did not significantly impact the assignment of healthy comparison or anxiety disorder participants to the latent classes. Raw total scores on the measures were transformed to z-scores for the purposes of analysis. Given the wide age range in the sample, to ensure that the obtained symptom classes were not an artifact of age differences, we partialed the effect of age on total scores and used the resulting residualized z-scores in the LPA.

LPA was conducted using Mplus Version 7. Participants were included in the study if they were biological parents of children aged 3—5 years of age, were able to read and speak English and gave their consent to be visited by a researcher at their home.

Participants were excluded if their child had a medical and neurological condition, language and cognitive delays. The research procedures of the study are also discussed elsewhere [ 33 ].

At the first assessment Time 1the sample consisted of families fathers and mothers. At the start of a home assessment, a trained psychologist collected written consent forms from the parents and provided information about the study and research procedures.

Each parent provided information about depressive episodes using the Structural Clinical Interview for DSM-IV [ 34 ] to assess diagnosis of Major Depressive Episode in the last month current depression or at any other time a history of depression. There were no significant differences in child and parent characteristics between parents who remained in the study and parents who dropped out.

The study duration spans the transition from the preschool to school age period during which children increasingly have to show appropriate self-regulation skills while behavioural problems become more stable with some emerging differences in their prevalence between boys and girls [ 124 ]. Similar intervals between assessments have been used in previous studies testing the effects of parental depression on child outcomes [ 35 ].

pair of kings meet the parents 002

The mean age of children was 3. A score of 20 and above indicates severe depression.

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A diagnosis of depression based on PHQ-9 is consistent with a diagnosis of depression made by independent clinicians [ 32 ]. Evidence also shows that adults who were diagnosed with depression based on the PHQ-9 had more impairment, utilised more health care and had more disability days [ 32 ]. Each parent completed the PHQ-9 at Times 1 and 2.

The Pre-school Five Minute Speech Sample P-FMSS has three global variables including initial statement scored as positive, negative and neutralrelationship scored as positive, neutral and negativewarmth scored as high, moderate and low and frequency count of positive and critical comments.

Previous research has shown that the scheme has satisfactory reliability and discriminant validity [ 36 ]. In this study, we limited the analyses to the frequency count of positive and critical comments because the number of parents who had a negative initial statement, low warmth and negative parent-child relationship was low. All speech samples were blindly coded. We used standardised scores to make comparisons between scores independently of which scale parents completed at Time 2.

pair of kings meet the parents 002

For each child, the corresponding externalising mean z-score at Time 2 was analysed as the outcome variable. The same procedure was used to create the internalizing outcome variable. We used this procedure to remove variability arising from parents completing different versions of the CBCL at Time 2.

Statistical analysis We used continuous PHQ-9 scores in our main analyses given evidence indicating that the intensity of maternal depressive symptoms rather than meeting categorical criteria for depression diagnosis is a sensitive predictor of child outcomes [ 38 ].

Analyses were conducted using MPlus version 7. Missing data were imputed using full information maximum likelihood and the MLR estimator was used to provide greater robustness. Covariates including child gender effect coded: We used an alpha level of.