Symbiosis in lichens - Wikipedia
Relationship between fungus and alga in the lichen Cladonia Others, however, cited the seemingly healthy and long-lasting nature of lichens as evidence of mutualism. different algae suggest that the relationship in this lichen is one of Google Scholar. 5. Peirce, G. T. Am. Nat. 34, – (). Difference Between Algae And Fungi - Find out the differences and discover if they have any similarities. major difference between Algae And Fungi, you might be surprised to learn that certain fungi form a symbiotic relationship with algae. Interactions between fungi and green algae have already been described for the at least five independent origins of lichens in distinct groups of Ascomycetes and if fungi are involved in specialized interspecific interactions (e.g., mutualism .. Comparison of Lichen-Forming Cyanobacterial and Green Algal Photobionts.
Symbiosis in lichens
They usually grow on the barks of trees, dry logs of wood, bare rocks. They are xerophytes in nature and can withstand a long period of drought. On the basis of fungal components: The fungal partner belongs to Ascomycetes Basidiolichens: The fungal partner belongs to Basidiomycetes Deuterolichens: The fungal partner belongs to deuteromycetes On the basis of Thallus: In this case, the thallus form crust like structure.
It closely adheres to the substrate. They are found on bark or rock. Graphis, Lecanora, Haematomma In this case, thallus has leaf-like lobes. They are fixed from the substrate by hairy rhizoids like structure called rhizines. They are attached only at central points.
Parmellia, Collema, Peltigera Their thalli are cylindrical ribbon-like and branched. It is attached only at the base by basal mucilagenous disc. They are commonly called as shrubby lichens. Two species of Lecanora have been used as food in the barren plains and mountains of Western Asia and Northern Africa.
Certain classes of East Siberian inhabitants use lichens as vegetable diet.
- Lichens : Symbiotic Relation Between Algae and Fungi
- Difference Between Algae And Fungi
It is also used for the preparation of chocolates and pastries. It is a food for reindeer and cattle.
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Species of Cladonia, Citraria, Evernia, Parmelia are used as fodder. Usnic acid obtained from the Usnea and Cladonia species is used as an antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria. Peltigera canina, the dog lichen is used as medicine for hydrophobia in ancient days.
Lobaria pulmonaria, lungwort are used for the diseases of lungs respiratory diseases and T. Parmelia is useful against epilepsy. Usnea species are good against urinary diseases. Xanthoria sp is used in jaundice etc Some lichens possess anticarcinogenic properties.
Lichens : Symbiotic Relation Between Algae and Fungi
The lungwort lichen is used in tanning, in perfumery. The cell walls of the fungi of certain lichens contain colouring matters. Species of Rocella and Lecanora yield a most important colouring matter known as Orchil or Cudbear.
This is used in colouring woolen and silk fabrics. The most commonly occurring genus of symbiotic cyanobacteria is Nostoc. Depending on context, the taxonomic name can be meant to refer to the entire lichen, or just the fungus that is part of the lichen. The alga or cyanobacterim bears its own scientific name, which bears no relationship to either the name of the lichen or the fungus. The fungal partner may be an Ascomycete or Basidiomycete.
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Next to the Ascomycota, the largest number of lichenized fungi occur in the unassigned fungi imperfecti. Comparatively few Basidiomycetes are lichenized, but these include agaricssuch as species of Lichenomphaliaclavarioid fungisuch as species of Multiclavulaand corticioid fungisuch as species of Dictyonema. Other lichen fungi occur in only five orders in which all members are engaged in this habit Orders GraphidalesGyalectalesPeltigeralesPertusarialesand Teloschistales.
Lichenized and nonlichenized fungi can even be found in the same genus or species. TrebouxiophyceaePhaeophyceaeChlorophyceae have been found to associate with the lichen-forming fungi. One fungus, for example, can form lichens with a variety of different algae. The thalli produced by a given fungal symbiont with its differing partners will be similar, and the secondary metabolites identical, indicating that the fungus has the dominant role in determining the morphology of the lichen.
Further, the same algal species can occur in association with different fungal partners.