Relationship between the three tiers of government in Nigeria ▷ cypenv.info
Federalism in Nigeria refers to the devolution of self-governance by the West African nation of Nigeria to its federated states, who share sovereignty with the Federal Government. . Add links. This page was last edited on 30 April , at (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution- ShareAlike. subordinate relationship between the federal government and the states. '" Federalism in Nigeria: Toward Federal Democracy," Publius: The Journal of. of decisions to reorganize the federation on the distribution of power between the federal and State (formerly regional) levels of government in order to see.
Fredrick went ahead to designate federalism: Federalism seems the most term by which to designate the process of federalizing a political community, that is to say, the process by which a number of separate political organizations, be they states or any kind of association enter into arrangements for working out solutions, adopting joint policies and making decisions on joint problems or reversely, the process through which a hitherto unitary political community as it becomes differentiated into a number of separate and distinct political communities achieve a new organization in which the differentiated communities now separately organized become capable of working out separately and on their own, those problems they no longer have in common.
The essential nature of federalism is to be sought, not in the shading of legal and constitutional terminology, but in the forces- economic, social, political, cultural- that have made the outward forms of federalism necessary…the essence of federalism lies not in the institutional or constitutional structure but in the society itself.
Federal government is a devise by which the federal qualities of the society are articulated and protected…. Federalism is not an absolute but a relative term; there is no specific point at which a society ceases to be unified and becomes diversified. The differences are of degree rather than a kind. These shreds of opinion draw us closer to the talks of ordering relations in a federal system.
Particularly, that a function assigned to one level of government may overlap with, howbeit subtly, or require supporting services from other levels of government. It is also to be taken that such likelihood of the ascendency of federal level over state in respect to financial matters, in other words, means subsidiary of the state to federal over grants, and as such, consequent regulation of state activities by the federal. Even, ironically, in trying to seek federal 6 partnership to re-stamp or re-launch its rightful statutory place in the federal computation, the state becomes yet more susceptible to subordination under a federal arrangement.
Most importantly, it has been found, as Dare notes, that in Nigeria, and indeed in all federations, the citizens could be better served - if both levels of government consulted with each other.
Adamolekun helps to confirm that administrative mechanisms had to be fashioned for assimilating the multiple interactions among the officials of different levels of government, with a view to entrenching certain degree of cohesion.
This, therefore, has been the very bases of cooperative federalism. As Elazar helpfully affirms: Whether cooperative federalism was intended by the fathers of the union or not, it was quickly demonstrated to be necessary. Governments operating in the same territory, serving the same people, generally sharing the same goals and faced with the same demands could not maintain a posture of dual federalism Elazar, Altogether, we are wont to admit that nothing any scholarly mind has thought or confessed about federalism is bunkum entirely.
Like a gigantic elephant, federalism may confusedly appear amoebaic or chameleonic in definition. No one can ever be perfectly sure or absolutely wrong in testifying his evidence, and if so, nobody should be unnecessarily attacked for doing so.
Hence, federalism is a relative term. What should agitate the mind, therefore and as in line with the general intention of this chapter, is the level of the practice or functional amenability of the federal principle in Nigeria, which is usually described as cooperative federalism.
We must point out strictly, however, that in the cooperative sense of federalism, world over, the pendulum of financial power has the peculiarity of not remaining in a state of equilibrium. It rather tends to slope overwhelmingly in the direction of the central government. These and more characterize the federal-state relations in Nigeria.
We may therefore need to briefly point out certain dominant factors that shape the course of federal-state relations in Nigeria.
Dominant Factors that Shape Federal-State Relations in Nigeria Most scholars have lavished quantum energy, every now and then, quarrelling with the irregular and convulsive practice of federalism in Nigeria. Others search endlessly for a true federalism, to import or at least 7 smuggle into the country. We believe, however, that certain trends encroach compellingly, time after time, in federal-state relations in the country.
A transparent understanding of such prevailing factors makes for better approximation of the situation. Therefore, effort is made, herein, to classify such factors into two definite spectrums - external and internal factors.
The theory and practice of federalism climaxed and culminated in the West before it was merely redistributed, or naturally trickled down to the lesser orbits. Whereas, the Nigerian federalism was a direct response to an instinctual fear of ethnic domination Oyovbaire,there may be verifiable evidence that those in fear of domination, that is the acclaimed nationalists, had also wanted a fair design that would guarantee them economic wealth and wellbeing.
Federalist enthusiasts like James BuchananBarry Weingast and John Kincaidare equally very optimistic that robust federal systems invariably promote high, long-term economic growth and development. As a matter of fact: By giving diverse territorial groups and economic agents the relative autonomy to create their own opportunities and resources, both federalism and the market engender the incentives to competition, experimentation, innovation, diversification and adaptation to lead economic productivity, efficiency and prosperity Onwudiwe and Suberu, Having attempted to reconcile federalism with liberalism, the point to be made, however, is that the dynamic patterns and oscillations of the liberal principle have had consuming effects on the federal-state romance in Nigeria.
As we may have to agree, by s, in view of the market failure in the developing world, the dominant liberal paradigm had emphasized the need for active government intervention in economic activity to offset market failures Ake,and later, not before long, by early s, the same liberal paradigm that supported state capitalism, shifted grounds and stood by the new world capitalist order, 8 which was to be renamed neo-liberalism, to imposingly talk of liberalization, privatization, commercialization, deregulation, corporatization free market etc.
The ripples of these outplay are many. The revenue generating capacity of the Nigerian economy became erratic and elastic over period. Such elasticity of national income means constant contest and clamour for altering the predominant revenue sharing models amongst the levels of government in the country, from time to time. We can directly say, that the intrusion of foreign capital and multinational businesses, may have more often than not, been to a considerable extent, the advantage of the federal government.
If that is so, then, the ascendency of federal level over state in this regard, means greater propensity of predisposing the states towards fiscal and financial stewardship to the federal level. Even, any attempt by the states to seek federal alliance to claim whatever it deems as her rightful statutory due in the federal arrangement, rather makes them more vulnerable and susceptible to subjugation and lasting cajolement.
Oil is the soul of Nigeria. With the production of about 2. This shows that the Nigerian oil has mostly been an external affair. While total gas production is put at 6. This shows that the oil industry is of utmost strategic economic importance to the country.
The oil resource impact more directly and significantly, in a variety of ways, on the fortunes of the fiscal regime in the country. We can recount them. First, the infiltration of multinational oil firms reformed, transformed and reoriented the state in Nigeria into somewhat else - a rentier state. This bulges the disposable coins in the coffers of the federal government. As time prospered, the fear of fiscal manipulation and consequent imperilment leavened serious calls for resource control by oil producing states.
Thereafter, revenue sharing parameters are, necessarily, redrafted without end. Second, oil revenue largely accounted for the segmental development of major cities in the country - Abuja, Lagos, Kano, etc, with enhanced business environments, companies built and foreign investments primitively concentrated. This, unknowingly to them, bred sweeping inequities across the nation.
What this means is that people at other overlooked settings become more consciously aware, u know - alerted over relative deprivation. Ethnic militias, indiscreet armed groups, individuals etc rose, as a matter of conviction of this, to contest their own share of the proceeds from the federal accord.
That is why conflict, violence, and criminality against the state, has characterized federal-state relations in Nigeria.
Relationship & Differences between Federal, State, & Local Governments in Nigeria
It can be argued again, that the pervasiveness of oil windfall inclines the federal government into a questionable spending spree. Under General Gowon, for example, the country knew nothing important to do with oil money.
During Obasanjo regime, the country was very ready to, and actually, paid civil servants in dollars - Okonjo Iweala was an outstanding beneficiary. But that is of little importance here. What one have observed over time is that, with too much disposable petro-Naira sthe federal bureaucracy has ever since been bolstered and fortified financially - I mean, in terms of pay and perks.
A wide hole was, therefore, inadvertently dung between federal and state employment benefits, even though the employees of the two arms of government have remained under a one national labour union.
One should also think that this development has direct link with the struggle over federal jobs, everywhere. Everybody wants to have a juicy share in the big deal. This must be the very reason why a lot of political offices were unnecessarily created, duplicated. Perhaps, this too gave rise, consequently, to the introduction of certain palliatives - quota systems, federal character principle etc. Oppositely and as a reverse effect, these developments have generated annihilating strife, arguments and debates on how to, and actual reordering of federal-state regimes from time to time.
Let us quickly acknowledge this painful truth: Thirdly and finally on this oil matter, the overall impression of the fluctuations and vacillations of the international oil market pricing regime on the economy has not been mathematically approximated for the 10 benefit of public eyes. Neither has what is generally being done with the monies well evaluated.
We then believe so sincerely, that a rise in the international oil market does not merely mean that Nigeria would earn more in excess of its budgetary benchmarks; as this is where they would want our knowledge of it to expire. But more critically, the two tiers of government have discretionary spending powers over the excess crude fund to be shared. This implies that out of the excess crude fund to be languished, usually in favour of the federal, the federal would have more powers to embark on various discretionary projects, not estimated in the budgets.
The question then becomes, how just would the distribution of such optional federal projects across the various zones be? Has the federal been fair in doing that? All things being equal, even if every other thing has been satisfactorily attended to elsewhere, I strongly contemplate if the South-East roads have damaged enough, to the conviction of the Federal Government, to qualify them to appear in their whitepapers.
Relationship between the three tiers of government in Nigeria
In fact, at a point, Ikejiani-Clark was compelled by circumstance to conduct a relevant study - where she quantified the magnitude of federal revenue vis-a-vis federal presence in South-East Nigeria. For what she saw, she queried: A state of poverty and hopelessness!
In terms of infrastructure generally, in the South-East, there is evidence of dilapidation. Deadly gullies connecting nerve centers, long stretch of busy roads without asphalt, bridges long overdue for rehabilitation, are seen everywhere. Our bias, however, is that even though oil resource has engendered blessing for the country, the people therein are rarely fairly blessed. This caricature of human existence hallmarks the resource allocation conundrum in the country.
If a leader is robust in the mind, then he can be very decisive and proactive. Therefore, we may consider it that successive Nigerian leaders have had to nudge or import their personality into their dealings with the states. According to the erudite scholar; Obasanjo illegally removed Governor Alamieyesiegha of Bayelsa state from office, illegally removed Governor Rasheed Ladoja of Oyo state from office, illegally declared state of emergency in Plateau, illegally suspended the governor of the Plateau state — Joshua Dariye, illegally declared state of emergency in Ekiti state, illegally suspended the governor of Ekiti state — Ayo Fayose, made illegal attempts to unseat Governor Chris Ngige from office, illegally did this, illegally did that, etc see Nwabueze, Simply put, a giant-hearted and forceful leader, like former President Obasanjo, may wield powers, even beyond his confines, to impose, reconcile or personalize his federal ideology upon the country.
Incidentally, some leaders are characteristically neither here nor there, like the incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan who is neither obviously hot nor understandably cool. For instance, he has confidently created more federal universities to balance the number across the states; he has recruited Anambra into the club of oil producing states Niger Delta ; he has improved the quality of the electoral system; yet, he has failed to create more states as proposed; he has appeared so weak in addressing insecurity in the Northern part of the country, which is fuelled by the Boko Haram sect, not minding its devastating impact on the federal outlook of the country, and so on.
In fact, most analysts believe that Jonathan has comprehensively failed in areas it mattered most pertaining to the sustainability of the Nigerian federal structure and coexistence.Indian Polity by Laxmikant chapter 14- Centre-State Relations(Part 1) for UPSC,State PSC,ssc cgl
However, we can generally infer that a forceful leadership is likely to maintain consistent but chaotic federal-state relations over a long time, and more likely - an over-centralized system. While a weak and fragile leadership may not sustain a single consistent federal style, and may encourage or promote more of decentralization and fragmentation. It has been variously submitted, for example, that federalism can help deepen, consolidate or improve democracy; by promoting citizenship development through decentralized political participation, more accountability, greater responsiveness of the political process to local interests, more political access to marginal groups - enhancing 12 the quality and density of representation, generating multiple checks and balances for political elite - for more sense of political moderation and accommodation, etc Diamond, A federal principle man, Wheare himself, equally had it in mind that, since federalism is a form of constitutional government, it is, therefore, incompatible with autocracy or totalitarian rule.
His mind, indirectly spoken, is that federalism is a sufficient condition for democracy, and vice versa. In some cases, a federal minister is responsible for more than one ministry for example, Environment and Housing may be combinedor a minister may be assisted by one or more ministers of State. Each ministry also has a Permanent Secretary, who is a senior civil servant. The ministries are responsible for various parastatals government-owned corporationssuch as universities, the National Broadcasting Commission, and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.
- Federal government of Nigeria
- Federalism in Nigeria
It has members, who are elected for four-year terms in single-seat constituencies. On the other hand, the Senate has members and it is presided over by the President of the Senate. One member is selected in the single-seat constituency of the federal capital. National Holidays C. The National Judicial Council serves as an independent executive body that protects the judiciary from the executive arm of government. The Supreme Court is presided over by the Chief Justice of Nigeria and thirteen associate justices, who are appointed by the President of Nigeria on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council.
These justices are subject to confirmation by the Senate. State Government We can understand what the State Government is by defining what a state is. A state is defined as a group of people permanently occupying a fixed territory and bound together by common habits and custom into one political body. In Nigeria, states enjoy a level of sovereignty, but this sovereignty is within the constraints of the Federal Government as provided for by the constitution.
Each state in Nigeria has its own capital city and it is governed by an elected official known as a governor who serves a maximum of two 4 year tenures maximum of 8 years. Just like the federal government, the state government has its executive, legislative and judicial arms. Here are some of the roles the State Government plays in the country. Security of Lives and Properties The state government plays an important role in the security of lives and properties along with other levels of government.
Provision of Basic Amenities Also, the state government is responsible for providing amenities such as good roads and potable drinking water for the people. Although amenities like electricity are the sole responsibility of the Federal Government, the state government can also complement the efforts of the government at the federal level to provide these amenities by embarking on rural electrification projects. In some cases, some state governments purchase transformers, electric poles and cables in order to assist the distribution companies to extend electricity supply to the people.
Creating Environment for Businesses to Thrive This is done by providing loans and tax holidays to small and medium entrepreneurs as well as large-scale investors. The provision of security and basic amenities are also important in helping businesses thrive. Establishment of Educational Institutions Every state has at least one state-owned tertiary institution along with the scores of state-owned primary schools, secondary schools, and technical schools.
Federal-State Relations In Nigeria | Victor Chidubem Iwuoha - cypenv.info
This role is essential in improving the level of education available in these states as well as providing employment to residents of the states in the form of academic and non-academic jobs.
Establishment of Health Care Facilities One of the roles of the state government is providing health care at a subsidized rate. In this case, the state government build, equip and run hospitals where people can get good quality healthcare at an affordable cost. Because the Federal allocations are normally given to state governments on a monthly basis but this is never enough to foot the bill of the state.
Nigerian statutes as sources of Nigerian law[ edit ] Nigerian legislation may be classified as follows. The colonial era untilpost independence legislationthe military era The post independence legislation [ edit ] The grant of independence to Nigeria was a milestone in the political history of the country. This period witnessed the consolidation of political gains made during the colonial era.
Politicians genuinely focused their lapses in the polity. It achieved for herself a republican status by shaking off the last vestiges of colonial authority. However, despite the violent violation of its provisions, the constitution remained the subsequent administrations military or otherwise.
Military regime, [ edit ] The breakdown of law and order which occurred in the period under review would not be attributed to any defect in the Nigerian legal system.