Considering the Definition of Addiction
It is also known as “relationship addiction” because people with codependency often form or maintain relationships that are one-sided, emotionally destructive. An addicted customer: 1. is emotionally and convenience. As a consequence, customers' relationships with sellers ability of businesses to create addicted customers.2 .. have value or meaning but just aren't living up to expectations. The. Definition of business relationship: An association between individuals or companies entered into for commercial purposes and sometimes formalized with legal.
While we felt that a quantitative analysis would not be of much incremental benefit, others may disagree. These five elements, which have been most popularly suggested as being constituents of addiction, are discussed next. Feeling Different In most cases, an addiction does not develop overnight. In general, when contemplating addiction, one often thinks of it in terms of a process. Different addictive behaviors have been empirically clustered as serving hedonistic e.
However, other or additional motives are plausible e.
The addiction process unfolds for some individuals but not others, and may reflect individual differences prior to engaging in the addictive behavior or as the individual continues to engage in the addictive behavior i. This includes feeling relatively uncomfortable, lonely, restless, or incomplete [ 23 ].
Considering the Definition of Addiction
Once a behavior is tried that decreases or eliminates the baseline sense of discomfort a process begins to unfold. The extent to which there exist persons in-born for addiction remains a subject of debate [ 26 ]. Alternatively, many persons report not feeling different prior to engaging in a problematic addictive behavior. Among these individuals, a behavior may be tried that is perceived as highly valued or enjoyable, possibly with effects that occur rather rapidly, that one desires to repeat [ 28 ].
In this instance, a process begins to unfold inducing a contrast between an enhanced or potentially addictive behavior-induced state of arousal, affect or cognition, and a baseline state of arousal, affect, or cognition. The initial reaction to the potentially addictive behavior may be experienced as more positive than with other persons among those relatively prone [ 8 ]. Involvement in extreme levels frequency or valence of these behaviors, which tend to be subject to social or other consequential restraints, may identify addictive levels of behaviors [ 12 ].
Preoccupation with the Behavior A second aspect of addiction considers excessive thoughts about and desire to perform a behavior, excessive time spent to plan and engage in the behavior, and possibly recover from its effects e. Interestingly, it is not known to what extent addictive desires operate on neurobiological processes differently from regular desires [ 23 ]. However, addictive behavior-induced repetitive firing of certain brain systems e.
Tolerance and withdrawal are the two hallmark criteria of physiological addiction, and, arguably, may also be considered as aspects of a more general concept of preoccupation or as features that contribute to preoccupation. Tolerance refers to the need to engage in the behavior at a relatively greater level than in the past to achieve previous levels of appetitive effects.
As tolerance increases, one likely spends more time locating and engaging in an addiction. Thus, tolerance may indicate increasing preoccupation. Withdrawal refers to physiological or acquired discomfort experienced upon abrupt termination of an addictive behavior.
If withdrawal symptoms exist, and worsen, one is likely to be spending more and more time recovering from the after-effects of the addiction, and focused in thought and action on how to cope e. That is, one is more preoccupied with the addiction when one is spending more time locating, engaging, and recovering from that behavior, and this may reflect processes of tolerance and withdrawal [ 35 — 37 ].
Possibly, related to tolerance or withdrawal, is the notion of craving. Craving or urges to engage in a target addictive behavior has been a hallmark defining feature of the addictions for a long time [ 1338 ]. Craving is not necessarily the same thing as physiological withdrawal and may, in fact, be more central to the concept of addictions [ 34 ]. For example, several highly addictive drugs e. Some addicts who are new in recovery may even maintain a subjective sense of fear that catastrophic events will occur if they continue to refrain from their addictions [ 23 ].
Craving has been proposed as a diagnostic feature of the addictions to be added to the DSM-V [ 39 ]. While there is some ambiguity regarding the definition of craving e. This satiation period is not well studied or considered.How to love your partner - True love vs. Addictive relationships (The Power of Now)
Some thoughts regarding this period pertain to a sense of distraction from life problems or feeling temporarily self-sufficient or nurtured [ 4142 ]. Satiation may be examined from the perspective of the Incentive-Motivational Model [ 124445 ], which examines in part how an addictive behavior may elicit satiation of emotional expectations through its incentive value e.
From this perspective, non-addictive alternatives over time may lose incentive value. That is, even though the addiction may not achieve satiety as well as it used to, its relative incentive value compared to non-addictive alternatives may increase [ 45 ]. That is, while there may be some discomfort in trying to achieve satiation, alternatives may provide even less of a chance of achieving a sense of satiation. Therefore, an iterative pattern continues involving a period of participation in an addictive behavior followed by a period of satiation.
One other notion possibly pertaining to satiation as well as to loss of control, discussed below is that of psychological reversals [ 4647 ]. This notion is the idea that people may fluctuate sharply between two or more experiential states e.
Biological needs, valence versus time delay of addictive behavior-related rewards, and a feeling a sense of frustration versus satiation, can shift one from one state to another [ 4648 ]. That is, when frustrated the individual may seek out an addictive behavior, and when satiated the individual may temporarily avoid such temptations.
The shift that may occur e. Hyde appears to reflect a lack of control, though behavior may appear well-controlled within each mood state. Arguably, there may be instances in which a person suffering from an addiction reports no longer being able to achieve satiation.
Business relations - Wikipedia
If so, some researchers might suggest that satiation should not be considered a defining element of addiction. It might rather be considered as a construct which interacts with addiction [ 49 ].
Alternatively, it is feasible that satiation almost always is achieved even if for brief periods, possibly directly following the first moments of onset of an addictive behavior, and when not satiated, satiation is still sought. Loss of Control Among the defining elements of addiction, loss of control has a rather long history [ 1213 ]. One may report desiring to stop an addictive behavior but, even so, not having the ability to precisely predict when a bout with the behavior will be initiated, how it will be manifested, or when it will stop.
That is, the addictive behavior may become increasingly more automatic [ 412151950 — 54 ]. Many persons claim to be struggling with an addiction; feeling compelled, sensing incomplete control; and it is observed that they may disregard even basic self-care, suggestive of a loss of will [ 8 ]. Incomplete memory access appears to be a common feature of addictions.
This attentional narrowing minimizes or negates the memory of the negative effects or consequences of previous addictive behavior experiences or access to aversive memory. Impulsiveness is another descriptor that has been used to indicate addiction-related loss of control [ 55 ]. This aspect of the addictive process might be identified as including spontaneous urges to engage in the addictive behavior about which executive inhibitory processes fail to operate due to actions of addiction-related reinforcers on separate memory systems implicit versus declarative systems [ 56 ].
On the other hand, executive planning declarative cognitive processes are involved in the addiction seeking process e. Such examples could suggest that persons suffering from addictions simply are making choices for pleasure in accordance with their lifestyle preferences and they may have very strong desires for pleasurecontrary to normative expectations [ 2 ].
That is, people may have very strong, regular, appetitive desires that outweigh other alternatives and cause negative consequences; but are engaged in not due to an obvious lack of behavioral control per se.
The relative emphasis placed on appetitive versus loss of control aspects of addiction apparently vary as a function of age; adults tend to view the loss of control aspect as more important than do adolescents [ 36 ]. Negative Consequences A fifth defining element of the concept of addiction is the existence of negative consequences.
In general, at some point, negative consequences tend to ensue due to engaging in an addictive behavior e. Continuing to engage in the addictive behavior after suffering numerous negative consequences often has been a criterion of dependence on the addictive behavior [ 429 ]. Stopping the behavior becomes difficult for several reasons, including influence of the cognitive salience of immediate gratification resulting from the addictive behavior i.
Thus, the addiction persists, incurring negative effects while also providing maintenance functions. Negative consequences may vary across contexts. For example, arrests for drinking and driving may not be well-enforced in some countries e. Thus, the legal consequences related to drinking alcohol may vary across contexts. Physical consequences may vary likewise e. Also, the social consequences of alcohol use and other addictions vary across history [ 11 ] and cultures [ 60 ], for example, due to differential tolerance of public display of drunken or high behavior.
Possibly, role consequences e. Some may define this term as a simple but intense urge to do something; only one aspect of addictions but centrally definitive of obsessive-compulsive disorders [ 61 ]. It may be defined even more precisely as an intense egodystonic separate from self urge to engage in a simple, repetitive activity, to remove anxiety [ 55 ].
Such activities may include repeated washing of hands, tying of shoes, or bathing, or restricting areas in which one will travel e. A narrow definition of compulsion does not, primarily, consider the interplay of higher-order cognitive processes, such as the planning that may go into completion of a cycle of addictive behavior.
The Psychology of Addictive Relationships
Arguably, however, someone may decide to wash their hands where there is plenty of soap available and the facility is considered very clean; this may involve planning. Also, the act may accomplish a temporary removal of anxiety, but it tends not to be experienced as pleasurable at any point in the engagement of the behavior [ 61 ].
Conversely, an addiction, by definition, involves the attempt to achieve some appetitive effect and satiation through engagement in some behavior. In fact, a whole constellation of purposeful behavior may be involved in attempts to achieve satiation [ 60 ]. Discussion and Conclusion A series of complex, associated behaviors may be engaged in to continue to achieve appetitive effects. The problem with continued engagement in addictive-related behaviors is that over time they lead to negative side effects.
Over time, negative consequences may be greater than the positive consequences of engaging in any number of addictive behaviors.
However, the participant may continue to engage in the behavior for several reasons. The existence of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. The presence of a family member suffering from a chronic mental or physical illness. Dysfunctional families do not acknowledge that problems exist. As a result, family members learn to repress emotions and disregard their own needs. The identity and emotional development of the members of a dysfunctional family are often inhibited Attention and energy focus on the family member who is ill or addicted.
The co-dependent person typically sacrifices his or her needs to take care of a person who is sick. How Do Co-dependent People Behave? Research has shown that "trust" is one of the most critical factors to develop and enhance effective long-term relations. Therefore, creating an environment with employee satisfaction will hinder and solve such disagreements and arguments between one employee to another and the data will significantly preferable.
Moreover, as the business environment is constantly changing, it is causing firms to address new entrepreneurial innovative ideas that could out-stand them from the competition. Trust plays an important role in this as with developed business relations it allows one to react and initiate such innovative ideas to the business more effectively.
There are two different types of trust that exists between business relations that affect one another, firstly " interpersonal" which refers to the individuals trust in one organization on other in the partnered organization. Secondly " inter organizational " which refers to members from the organization having a collective orientation or culture of trust towards a partner in a different organization.
With loyalty established internally in the organization and the employer aims and directs constant communication, the employer will form a strong relationship and bond between the employees and organizations; allowing them to feel more attached and sense commitment. This will result in a more motivated group of employees that will deliver high-quality services which is one of the key characteristics of " social exchange ".
Delivering high quality services is essential as it allows organizations to gain customer satisfaction which gives a positive impact on the firm as customer satisfaction boosts customer loyalty and future behaviors.
Customers become less concerned and sensitive towards prices as by being satisfied they tend to pay and tolerate such an increase in prices which in the long-term establishes a positive reputation as well as increasing the economic performance of the firm. Therefore, loyalty is essential in order to gain a strong employee relationship which can link to having a better customer loyalty, with time resulting in a more organized business that has a good flow of communication both internally and externally.