Chief Whip - Wikipedia
"By definition, the Whip job is collaborative, and has to draw on relationships that transcend boundaries and groups. At this tumultuous time for. floor leader, though the designation "leader" was not formalized in the. Senate .. senators-the right senators meaning senators who are going to vote with us-the right . as Republican majority leader, whip checks were conducted by the of- fice of the . There is a kind of symbiotic relationship between the Senate majority. Roskam, who now serves as the chief deputy whip, lost the bid to be majority " By definition, the whip job is collaborative, and has to draw on.
Margaret Thatcher was famed for using her Chief Whip as a "cabinet enforcer". The role of Chief Whip is regarded as secretive, as the Whip is concerned with the discipline of their own party's Members of Parliament and never appears on television or radio in their capacity as whip.
An exception was Andrew Mitchellthe Government Chief Whip inwho appeared on television to deny remarks made about himself. Whips in the House of Commons do not speak in debates. In order to give them a salary for what is in essence a party office, the government whips are appointed to positions in HM Treasury and in the Royal Household under the Lord Steward of the Household.
The whips are not fully active in either of these departments, though do undertake a number of responsibilities.
whip | Definition of whip in English by Oxford Dictionaries
Assistant Whips, and Whips of opposition parties, generally do not receive such appointments. Outside the government, the Official Opposition Chief Whip in the Commons, like the Leader of the Oppositionreceives a stipend in addition to their parliamentary salary, because their additional responsibilities will make them unable to hold down another job.
The whips, although superficially dictatorial, do act as communicators between the backbenchers and the party leadership. Ultimately if backbenchers are unhappy with the leadership's position they can threaten to revolt during a vote and force the leadership to compromise. While the whip was formally introduced to British politics by the Irish Parliamentary Party under Charles Stewart Parnell in the s,[ citation needed ] in the Duke of Wellington advised the new Conservative Party leader Lord Stanley to ensure that his "whippers-in" were personally loyal.
This letter informs them of the schedule for the days ahead, and includes the sentence, "Your attendance is absolutely essential" next to each debate in which there will be a vote.
This sentence is underlined once, twice or three times depending on the consequences that will be suffered if they do not turn up, hence the origin of the terms one-line whip, two-line whip and three-line whip. The actual vote they are to make is communicated to them in the chamber by hand signals during the division when the time comes usually after the division bell has been rung.
Even though it is more important to the result of any division than the debate, neither these instructions, which are visible to everyone in the chamber, nor the "whip" letter at the start of the week, are recorded in Hansardas they are considered a matter internal to the political party ; indeed, the system exists because any explicit direction to an MP as to how they should vote would be a breach of parliamentary privilege.
The consequences of defying the party whip depend on the circumstances, and are usually negotiated with the party whip in advance. The party whip's job is to ensure the outcome of the vote, so the situation is different and more important for a party which holds the majority, because if their members obey the whip they can always win.
If the party has a large Commons majority, it can make allowances for MPs who are away on important business, or whose political circumstances require them to take a particular issue very seriously.
Theoretically at least, expulsion from the party is an automatic consequence of defying a three-line whip.
Under the rules of the House, the minority leader has certain roles and responsibilities. They include the following: Under Rule I, clause 9, the "Speaker, in consultation with the Minority Leader, shall develop through an appropriate entity of the House a system for drug testing in the House.
Under Rule X, clause 2, not later "than March 31 in the first session of a Congress, after consultation with the Speaker, the Majority Leader, and the Minority Leader, the Committee on Government Reform shall report to the House the oversight plans" of the standing committees along with any recommendations it or the House leaders have proposed to ensure the effective coordination of committees' oversight plans.
Committee on Standards of Official Conduct: Rule X, clause 5, stipulates: Rule X, clause Motion to Recommit with Instructions. Under Rule XIII, clause 6, the Rules Committee may not except in certain specified circumstances issue a "rule" that prevents the minority leader or a designee from offering a motion to recommit with instructions.
In addition, the minority leader has a number of other institutional functions. For instance, the minority leader is sometimes statutorily authorized to appoint individuals to certain federal entities; he or she and the majority leader each name three Members to serve as Private Calendar objectors; he or she is consulted with respect to reconvening the House per the usual formulation of conditional concurrent adjournment resolutions; he or she is a traditional member of the House Office Building Commission; he or she is a member of the United States Capitol Preservation Commission; and he or she may, after consultation with the Speaker, convene an early organizational party caucus or conference.
Informally, the minority leader maintains ties with majority party leaders to learn about the schedule and other House matters and forges agreements or understandings with them insofar as feasible. Party functions[ edit ] The minority leader has a number of formal and informal party responsibilities.
Formally, the rules of each party specify certain roles and responsibilities for their leader. For example, under Democratic rules for the th Congressthe minority leader may call meetings of the Democratic Caucus. Examples of other assignments are making "recommendations to the Speaker on all Democratic Members who shall serve as conferees" and nominating party members to the Committees on Rules and House Administration.
Republican rules identify generally comparable functions for their top party leader. Informally, the minority leader has a wide range of party assignments.
Lewis Deschler, the late House Parliamentarian —summarized the diverse duties of a party's floor leader: A party's floor leader, in conjunction with other party leaders, plays an influential role in the formulation of party policy and programs.
They are instrumental in guiding legislation favored by his party through the House, or in resisting those programs of the other party that are considered undesirable by his own party. They are instrumental in devising and implementing his party's strategy on the floor with respect to promoting or opposing legislation.
They are kept constantly informed as to the status of legislative business and as to the sentiment of his party respecting particular legislation under consideration. Such information is derived in part from the floor leader's contacts with his party's members serving on House committees, and with the members of the party's whip organization. Minority leaders are typically energetic and aggressive campaigners for partisan incumbents and challengers.
There is hardly any major aspect of campaigning that does not engage their attention. For example, they assist in recruiting qualified candidates; they establish "leadership PACs" to raise and distribute funds to House candidates of their party; they try to persuade partisan colleagues not to retire or run for other offices so as to hold down the number of open seats the party would need to defend; they coordinate their campaign activities with congressional and national party campaign committees; they encourage outside groups to back their candidates; they travel around the country to speak on behalf of party candidates; and they encourage incumbent colleagues to make significant financial contributions to the party's campaign committee.
The minority leader, in consultation with other party colleagues, has a range of strategic options that he or she can employ to advance minority party objectives. The options selected depend on a wide range of circumstances, such as the visibility or significance of the issue and the degree of cohesion within the majority party.
For instance, a majority party riven by internal dissension, as occurred during the early s when Progressive and "regular" Republicans were at loggerheads, may provide the minority leader with greater opportunities to achieve their priorities than if the majority party exhibited high degrees of party cohesion.
Among the variable strategies available to the minority party, which can vary from bill to bill and be used in combination or at different stages of the lawmaking process, are the following: The minority party supports and cooperates with the majority party in building winning coalitions on the floor.
The minority party offers opposition, but it is of marginal significance, typically because the minority is so small. The minority party chooses not to take a position on an issue, perhaps because of intraparty divisions. The minority party develops alternatives and agendas of its own and attempts to construct winning coalitions on their behalf. The minority party offers strong opposition to majority party initiatives but does not counter with policy alternatives of their own.
The minority party opposes initiatives of the majority party and offers its own proposals as substitutes. The minority party is in the position of having to consider the views and proposals of their president and to assess their majority-building role with respect to his priorities. The purposes of obstruction are several, such as frustrating the majority party's ability to govern or attracting press and media attention to the alleged ineffectiveness of the majority party.
By stalling action on the majority party's agenda, the minority leader may be able to launch a campaign against a "do-nothing Congress" and convince enough voters to put his party back in charge of the House.
To be sure, the minority leader recognizes that "going negative" carries risks and may not be a winning strategy if his party fails to offer policy alternatives that appeal to broad segments of the general public. Promote and Publicize the Party's Agenda.
An important aim of the minority leader is to develop an electorally attractive agenda of ideas and proposals that unites their own House members and that energizes and appeals to core electoral supporters as well as independents and swing voters. Despite the minority leader's restricted ability to set the House's agenda, there are still opportunities for him to raise minority priorities.
For example, the minority leader may employ, or threaten to use, discharge petitions to try and bring minority priorities to the floor. As a GOP minority leader once said, the challenges he confronted are to "keep our people together, and to look for votes on the other side. For instance, to keep their party colleagues "on message," they insure that partisan colleagues are sent packets of suggested press releases or "talking points" for constituent meetings in their districts; they help to organize "town meetings" in Members' districts around the country to publicize the party's agenda or a specific priority, such as health care or education; they sponsor party "retreats" to discuss issues and assess the party's public image; they create "theme teams" to craft party messages that might be raised during the one-minute, morning hour, or special order period in the House; they conduct surveys of party colleagues to discern their policy preferences; they establish websites that highlight and distribute party images and issues to users; and they organize task forces or issue teams to formulate party programs and to develop strategies for communicating these programs to the public.
House minority leaders also hold joint news conferences and consult with their counterparts in the Senate—and with the president if their party controls the White House.
The overall objectives are to develop a coordinated communications strategy, to share ideas and information, and to present a united front on issues. Minority leaders also make floor speeches and close debate on major issues before the House; they deliver addresses in diverse forums across the country, and they write books or articles that highlight minority party goals and achievements.