The prevalence of bilateral Class I, Class II, and Class III canine relationship can be defined as an occlusion in which there is a mal-interarch relationship in a . A couple who are the best couple out there. They are the power couple. Everyone wants to be like them. mination of the lip-to-incisor relationship is that the contact between the inclinations relative to the occlusal plane (defined as the tip of the cuspid and the most.
Intraarch Measurements In the present study, closed dentition and crowding were found in These subjects are more prone to develop crowding in the permanent dentition although space might be provided by increased intercanine width, more proclined incisors position, and leeway space.
The prevalence of crowding is found to increase at later stages in Caucasian subjects,[ 16192021 ] but the opposite seems to occur in Libyan subjects from the study community; in the permanent dentition of the upper and lower arches crowding occurs in This might suggest that dental crowding in urban Libyan children is mostly a transient feature that is eventually resolved during the transitional stage from primary to permanent dentition by deriving space from a slight increase in arch width across the canines, a slight labial positioning of the central and lateral incisors and distal shift of the permanent canines[ 28 ].
The prevalence of malocclusion in urban Libyan schoolchildren
Interarch Measurements A number of previous studies reported the prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in different populations. A similar distribution The similarity of the Class II malocclusion rates in the primary and permanent dentition of Libyan subjects might suggest that the permanent dentition interarch sagittal relationship is determined at an early age and remains stable.
In turn, this might indicate that early recognition of such discrepancies is required to prevent the development of malocclusion or propose early treatment. OJ within the normal range mm is more prevalent in Libyan children An OJ exceeding 3 mm was noticed in Moreover, OJ exceeding 3 mm was seen in A reverse OJ was observed in 1. Examining subjects with permanent dentition from the same community in Benghazi city revealed increased prevalence of crossbite at However, longitudinal studies of the same subjects are required to explore these findings.
Prevalence of malocclusion in urban libyan preschool children
Scissors bite was observed only in one child, accounting for 0. Scissors bite was not observed in Saudi children. Additionally, scissors bite occurred in only 0. The prevalence of normal overbite in this study The frequency of anterior openbite 2.
This might be especially true as the prevalence of openbite in Libyan permanent dentition from the same community found to be at a similar percentage[ 14 ] 2. Further studies of the relationship between sucking habits and the presence of openbite in Libyan children are currently underway.
This research showed that there is no significant difference in the mean overbite with age, suggesting that there are no changes as children develop in the functional constraints influencing the vertical relation of the incisors.
It seems clear that the development of occlusion is a continuum from primary to permanent dentition for a number of traits, and that malocclusion can be detected early on.
If factors that predispose to the development of malocclusion in the primary dentition are recognized at a young age, early management options may be considered, especially for the treatment of posterior crossbites. However, such early intervention is a controversial subject in orthodontics. Moreover, nationwide studies on Libyan preschool children with larger sample sizes are recommended to help obtain a clearer picture about occlusal traits in deciduous dentition.
Furthermore, it shows that the development of occlusion is a continuum from primary to permanent dentition for a number of traits. Footnotes Conflict of Interest: Alexander S, Prabhu NT. Profiles, occlusal plane relationships and spacing of teeth in the dentitions of 3 to 4 year old children. J Clin Pediatr Dent. The Stonebridge Publishers; Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogota, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development.
Chicago Yearbook Medical Publishers; Occlusion in the primary dentition in 3-year-old children. Scandinavian J Dent Res. Malocclusion in the deciduous dentition of Caucasian children. Sucking habits in Saudi children: Prevalence, contributing factors and effects on the primary dentition.
A study of Malocclusion in the primary dentition in a population of Nigerian children. Nig J Clinic Pract. Abu Alhaija E, Qudeimat M.
The prevalence of malocclusion was A normal overbite, increased and open bites were observed in Crossbite was present in Crowding in the maxillary and mandibular arches were observed in Spacing occurred in 9. The prevalence of malocclusion in Libyan schoolchildren is among the highest reported in the literature. Crowding is among the least reported manifestations of malocclusion.
Several assessment approaches have been advocated in the literature to classify malocclusion. Angle's classification of malocclusion, introduced in ,[ 3 ] was based on molar relationship and offered a clear description of normal occlusion as well as subdividing the major types of malocclusions.
The classification is limited to anteroposterior direction and ignored transversal and vertical dimensions, but remains the most widely used by orthodontists because of its simplicity and practicality.
Furthermore, dental students must be taught the basic information relating specifically to their community instead of that derived from research conducted on other, different ethnicities and populations. Two previous studies reported the prevalence of malocclusion in Libyan schoolchildren. Gardiner[ 6 ] conducted a survey by clinically examining students from Benghazi city.
Both studies lacked a sample size calculation, method error analyses, details of measuring tools, and neither reported clear cut discrimination between the different types of malocclusions.
Furthermore, the evaluations were undertaken on site without using study models. Thus, there is a need for further research with refined methodology to explore a wider variety of occlusal traits. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malocclusions and occlusal traits in an urban Libyan schoolchildren living in Benghazi city. A second aim was to investigate sexual dimorphism of occlusal traits.
Intermediate schools were selected from a list obtained from the Ministry of Education Directorate in Benghazi and were based in five geographic regions; central, Eastern, Western, Northern and Southern. Four schools were selected randomly from each geographic area. The total number of students attending these schools was 43, 22, females and 21, maleswith the number of participants chosen from each region varying according to the total number of students to ensure fair representation of the targeted population.
A list of children in each classroom was obtained; every fifth child was examined to assure randomization. The students who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were requested to participate in the study after informing their parents and obtaining the consents. Nine hundred students males and females aged years were examined at the school premises by one examiner I.
The participants were of Libyan descent for at least two generations with no craniofacial abnormalities and none had undergone previous orthodontic treatment. All permanent dentitions were fully erupted up to the second molar, with no caries or restorations that might interfere with accurate assessment. A total of students males with a mean age of All models were checked and numbered.
All measurements were extracted using an electronic digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.
The prevalence of malocclusion in urban Libyan schoolchildren
An Excel spreadsheet file was prepared including all the recorded occlusal criteria for all participants. The horizontal distance from the most labial point of the incisal edge of the maxillary incisors to the most labial surface of the corresponding mandibular incisor parallel to the occlusal plane to the nearest 0.
A negative OJ value was reported if the upper incisors were posterior to the lower incisors. OJ measurements were grouped as follows: