but who also enjoy engaging in “self-expanding” joint activities that are novel and People in good relationships engage in “sentiment override,” meaning that your partner without much effort, this suggests that your partner takes up only a . Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(2), doi/. personnel assigned to (or participating in) a joint targeting effort. It also presents well developed definitions that have been harmonized with joint doctrine and discusses those. “best practices” that .. They combine art and science . relationship between COGs, LOOs, and decisive points can become more. Muscles, bones, and joints are some of the most interesting applications of statics . This means that the biceps muscle is exerting a force times the weight Training coaches and physical therapists use the knowledge of relationships such as weightlifters, can tear muscles and connecting tissue through effort alone .
Damage to the human quadriceps muscle from eccentric exercise and the training effect. Journal of sports sciences, 22 Altering the length-tension relationship with eccentric exercise. Sports Medicine, 37 9 Effects of eccentric exercise on optimum length of the knee flexors and extensors during the preseason in professional soccer players.Physics - Mechanics: Torque (5 of 7) The Bicep
Physical Therapy in Sport, 11 2 Is the force-length relationship a useful indicator of contractile element damage following eccentric exercise?. Journal of biomechanics, 38 9 Intensity of eccentric exercise, shift of optimum angle, and the magnitude of repeated-bout effect.
Journal of applied physiology, 3 The effects of eccentric hamstring strength training on dynamic jumping performance and isokinetic strength parameters: Physical Therapy in Sport, 6 2 Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.
Endurance time is joint-specific: A modelling and meta-analysis investigation
Journal of sports sciences, 33 12 Shift of optimum angle after concentric-only exercise performed at long vs. Sport Sciences for Health, 12 1 Behavior of fascicles and the myotendinous junction of human medial gastrocnemius following eccentric strength training. Inter-individual variability in the adaptation of human muscle specific tension to progressive resistance training. European journal of applied physiology, 6 The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres.
The Journal of physiology, 1 European journal of applied physiology, 99 4 Effect of hip flexion angle on hamstring optimum length after a single set of concentric contractions. Journal of sports sciences, 31 14 Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training.
Frontiers in Physiology, 7. Neuromuscular adaptations to isoload versus isokinetic eccentric resistance training. Training-induced changes in muscle architecture and specific tension. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, 72 Investigation of supraspinatus muscle architecture following concentric and eccentric training. Because of this nonlinear relationship, factors potentially influencing ET may be dependent upon task intensity. Thus, between joint comparisons must be considered across a wide range of contraction levels.
Numerous attempts have been made to reproduce or update the classic Rohmert's curve, including several joint-specific models RohmertMonod and ScherrerHagbergHuijgensSato et al. These models most often consist of either power functions log—log relationship or exponential functions log-linear relationship between intensity and ET, respectively.
In a review of 24 static contraction ET models developed by 12 separate investigators, the upper limb is predicted to exhibit significantly shorter ETs for a given intensity than the trunk or hip El ahrache et al. This analysis, however, relied on model variance as a surrogate for population variance, rather than using experimentally obtained fatigue data, thus may not truly represent underlying physiological differences. There has yet to be a clear consensus of which static contraction ET model provides the most accurate predictions of fatigue development.
Static contraction endurance limit times are reported at two joints, or torque directions within one joint, in a handful of studies with varying results, albeit rarely with the intent to specifically assess these differences. ET appears to vary between joints in several studies Petrofsky et al. In one study, between-joint differences in ET varied across intensities, with no clear trend Bonde-Petersen et al.
Little can be concluded from these findings as they 1 compare only a small subset of possible joint combinations and contraction intensities, 2 are lacking in total number of studies involving multiple joints, and 3 involve relatively small sample sizes. Theoretically, ET may depend on several factors, such as variations in fibre type Burke et al.
However it is not clear that these factors vary systematically between joints. If fatigue-resistance proves to vary between several primary joints of the body, we can then work to better understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for variations in fatigue development and how to minimise its potential negative sequelae. Despite the plethora of research on static contraction muscle fatigue, this vast array of data has not been systematically analysed to investigate between-joint differences or validate intensity-ET models.
The nonlinear dependence of ET on contraction intensity makes traditional meta-analysis techniques in isolation challenging, as ET and thus effect size cannot be directly compared across different intensities.
Creating joint-specific intensity—ET models based on the available data provides a unique combination of analytic techniques, thereby allowing statistical comparisons between multiple joints across all possible intensities. Thus, the goals of this study were to 1 calculate empirically-derived intensity—ET models which best fit the currently available data; and 2 use these models to make joint-level comparisons of fatigue-resistance.
To achieve these goals, a thorough systematic review of the literature was performed to obtain all relevant sustained static contraction ET data. These findings are relevant to ergonomic applications that would benefit from validated static contraction ET models for each major joint for which sufficient fatigue data are available. A stage is set for open communication.
This can go a long way in resolving a factual dispute, as factual disputes like many disputes in general can be the result of faulty communication. A second principle is: Information and resources will be shared. This is a shift from the common practice of withholding information as a tactical move.
Endurance time is joint-specific: A modelling and meta-analysis investigation
Under joint fact-finding, key pieces of evidence become available to all. Making information that formerly might have been kept secret available means making it increasingly difficult for the parties to slant findings in their own favor.
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Another advantage is that experts can gain access to each other's unique expertise. The result is a much more fair, objective, and balanced inquiry into the facts. The sharing of other resources can have a significant impact also. Facts, especially those that are scientifically or technically complex, are often only as good as the resources used to discover them.
It may be the case that your "adversary" has access to resources in the form of experts, funds, information, or equipment that you lack, and vice versa. For example, environmental groups sometimes employ leading scientists and academics, yet academic departments face fairly serious budget constraints, as do many environmental organizations. If such groups choose to work together on a specific factual inquiry, they gain access to previously unavailable expertise and equipment.
In this respect, the whole may turn out to be greater than the sum of the parts or, more specifically, such a sharing of resources holds possibilities beyond reaching agreement on key conflict facts.
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The prospect of actually furthering the relevant fields by sharing resources can provide additional motivation for experts under such conditions to set aside adversarial techniques and work together. This is in addition to the potential benefit of discovering unrecognized opportunities for balancing competing interests.
Yet a joint fact-finding committee is not comprised solely of technical experts. Other key conflict figures must be included so as to ensure that the experts focus on the right questions, and are aware of relevant concerns and goals. Considering the different levels of expertise and knowledge present, technical information will need to be presented so that the non-expert may understand it. Factual communication therefore, becomes highly important. This allows non-experts to offer possibly fresh insights, forcing experts to examine a set of problems in a new way.
It is also necessary to ensure that the diverse resources and people involved in joint fact-finding are unified in their attempt to reach a specific goal.