All About PR - Public Relations Society of America
Google's free service instantly translates words, phrases, and web pages between English and over other languages. V esto es porque no quieren dejar de estarlo; porque paladea tanto el gusto esto de por medio de otra, que de gusto y entretenga" (metaphorically, it means to On the La- canian diagram of the relationship of the drive around the goal of. In the relatively brief period leading up to today, public relations has been defined in many different ways, the definition often evolving alongside public relations'.
Beginning with the assumption that the current mean size of the human neocortex had developed aboutyears ago, during the PleistoceneDunbar searched the anthropological and ethnographical literature for census-like group size information for various hunter—gatherer societies, the closest existing approximations to how anthropology reconstructs the Pleistocene societies.
Dunbar noted that the groups fell into three categories—small, medium and large, equivalent to bandscultural lineage groups and tribes —with respective size ranges of 30—50, — and — members each. Correspondingly, only groups under intense survival pressure,[ citation needed ] such as subsistence villages, nomadic tribes, and historical military groupings, have, on average, achieved the member mark.
Moreover, Dunbar noted that such groups are almost always physically close: In dispersed societies, individuals will meet less often and will thus be less familiar with each other, so group sizes should be smaller in consequence.
Dunbar, in Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Languageproposes furthermore that language may have arisen as a "cheap" means of social grooming, allowing early humans to maintain social cohesion efficiently.
Without language, Dunbar speculates, humans would have to expend nearly half their time on social grooming, which would have made productive, cooperative effort nearly impossible. Language may have allowed societies to remain cohesive, while reducing the need for physical and social intimacy. For example, developers of social software are interested in it, as they need to know the size of social networks their software needs to take into account; and in the modern military, operational psychologists seek such data to support or refute policies related to maintaining or improving unit cohesion and morale.
Relationships between tables in a Data Model - Excel
A recent study has suggested that Dunbar's number is applicable to online social networks  and communication networks mobile phone. Russell Bernard, Peter Killworth and associates have done a variety of field studies in the United States that came up with an estimated mean number of ties,which is roughly double Dunbar's estimate.
The Bernard—Killworth median of is lower, due to upward straggle in the distribution, but still appreciably larger than Dunbar's estimate. The Bernard—Killworth estimate of the maximum likelihood of the size of a person's social network is based on a number of field studies using different methods in various populations.
It is not an average of study averages but a repeated finding. Criticism[ edit ] Philip Lieberman argues that since band societies of approximately 30—50 people are bounded by nutritional limitations to what group sizes can be fed without at least rudimentary agriculturebig human brains consuming more nutrients than ape brains, group sizes of approximately cannot have been selected for in paleolithic humans.
Under "Vigo information", pattern, invariance, complexity, representation, and information—five fundamental constructs of universal science—are unified under a novel mathematical framework. As an influence that leads to transformation[ edit ] Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns.
The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. One might argue though that for a human to consciously define a pattern, for example a nucleotide, naturally involves conscious information processing.
Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating due to feedback in the system can be called information.
In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose.
For example, Gregory Bateson defines "information" as a "difference that makes a difference". Complex definitions of both "information" and "knowledge" make such semantic and logical analysis difficult, but the condition of "transformation" is an important point in the study of information as it relates to knowledge, especially in the business discipline of knowledge management.
In this practice, tools and processes are used to assist a knowledge worker in performing research and making decisions, including steps such as: Review information to effectively derive value and meaning Reference metadata if available Establish relevant contextoften from many possible contexts Derive new knowledge from the information Make decisions or recommendations from the resulting knowledge Stewart argues that transformation of information into knowledge is critical, lying at the core of value creation and competitive advantage for the modern enterprise.
The Danish Dictionary of Information Terms  argues that information only provides an answer to a posed question. Whether the answer provides knowledge depends on the informed person. So a generalized definition of the concept should be: When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets.
Also, pheromones are often said to be "information" in this sense. As a property in physics[ edit ] Main article: Physical information Information has a well-defined meaning in physics. Bekenstein claimed that a growing trend in physics was to define the physical world as being made up of information itself and thus information is defined in this way see Digital physics. Examples of this include the phenomenon of quantum entanglementwhere particles can interact without reference to their separation or the speed of light.
Material information itself cannot travel faster than light even if that information is transmitted indirectly.
This could lead to all attempts at physically observing a particle with an "entangled" relationship to another being slowed down, even though the particles are not connected in any other way other than by the information they carry. The mathematical universe hypothesis suggests a new paradigm, in which virtually everything, from particles and fields, through biological entities and consciousness, to the multiverse itself, could be described by mathematical patterns of information.
By the same token, the cosmic void can be conceived of as the absence of material information in space setting aside the virtual particles that pop in and out of existence due to quantum fluctuations, as well as the gravitational field and the dark energy. Nothingness can be understood then as that within which no matter, energy, space, time, or any other type of information could exist, which would be possible if symmetry and structure break within the manifold of the multiverse i.
Another link is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment. In this experiment, a direct relationship between information and another physical property, entropyis demonstrated.
A consequence is that it is impossible to destroy information without increasing the entropy of a system; in practical terms this often means generating heat. Another more philosophical outcome is that information could be thought of as interchangeable with energy.
Physical information is of particular importance in the theory of quantum computers.
- Dunbar's number
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- Get started with table relationships
In thermodynamicsinformation is any kind of event that affects the state of a dynamic system that can interpret the information. The application of information study[ edit ] The information cycle addressed as a whole or in its distinct components is of great concern to information technologyinformation systemsas well as information science.
Information does not cease to exist, it may only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval within information theorysee lossy compression ; in physicsthe black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle. Information visualization shortened as InfoVis depends on the computation and digital representation of data, and assists users in pattern recognition and anomaly detection.
Partial map of the Internet, with nodes representing IP addresses Galactic including dark matter distribution in a cubic section of the Universe Information embedded in an abstract mathematical object with symmetry breaking nucleus Visual representation of a strange attractor, with converted data of its fractal structure Information security shortened as InfoSec is the ongoing process of exercising due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, disruption or distribution, through algorithms and procedures focused on monitoring and detection, as well as incident response and repair.
Information quality shortened as InfoQ is the potential of a dataset to achieve a specific scientific or practical goal using a given empirical analysis method. Technologically mediated information[ edit ] It is estimated that the world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2. Essentially, records are information produced consciously or as by-products of business activities or transactions and retained because of their value.
Primarily, their value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value.
Hyponymy and hypernymy
Sound records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required. The international standard on records management, ISOdefines records as "information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business".
Willis expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered "