Treatment of the condition association between small dense LDL and atherosclerosis. familial hypercholesterolaemia, the cause of early. Signs and Symptoms of Hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia itself does not produce symptoms. However, if hyperlipidemia results in coronary heart disease (CHD). Multivessel CAC was defined as involvement of at least 2 coronary arteries. Combined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, MetS, and low However, the relationship between subclinical atherosclerosis and.
In this study we aimed to review the mechanism of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, focusing on new findings in atherosclerosis markers and its risk factors. Furthermore, the role of antioxidants and medicinal herbs in atherosclerosis and endothelial damage has been discussed and a list of important medicinal plants effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis is presented.
The recently published papers about atherosclerosis pathogenesis and herbal medicines effective in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were searched. Inflammation has a crucial role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
The disease is accompanied by excessive fibrosis of the intima, fatty plaques formation, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and migration of a group of cells such as monocytes, T cells, and platelets which are formed in response to inflammation.
Malondialdehyde factor shows the level of lipoperoxidation and is a sign of increased oxidative pressure and cardiovascular diseases. In special pathological conditions such as severe hypercholesterolemia, peroxynitrite concentration increases and atherosclerosis and vascular damage are intensified.
Medicinal plants have shown to be capable of interacting these or other pathogenesis factors to prevent atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis factors involved in atherosclerosis have recently been cleared and the discovery of these factors has brought about new hopes for better prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis: Process, Indicators, Risk Factors and New Hopes
It is a disease of vascular intima, in which all the vascular system from aorta to coronary arteries can be involved and is characterized by intimal plaques. By contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between the low HDL-c, hypertriglyceridemia, and normolipidemia groups in the prevalence of multivessel CAC in the unadjusted model. Subsequent multivariate Poisson regression analysis adjusting for the demographic and cardiac risk factors, including Agatston calcium score, showed that the same lipid groups combined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia of metabolic syndrome and the multivessel CAC maintained statistical significance in the model, compared to the normolipidemia reference group Table 4.
Interestingly, the previously nonsignificant HDL have become significant in the adjusted model. Furthermore, higher Agatston calcium score, age, male gender, Asian race, currently smoking, hypertension, and waist circumference were all significantly associated with multivessel disease.
The other demographic and cardiac risk factors previously mentioned were not found to have a significant relationship with multivessel disease.
Adjusted prevalence ratio of multivessel CAC as a function of lipid groups. Discussion Previous literature has shown that different types of dyslipidemia have varying association with CAC scores [ 23617 ]; however, our study elucidates a relationship between the different dyslipidemia types and the extent of coronary artery disease, defined as the rate of multivessel CAC.
We focus on whether or not the heterogeneities of baseline subclinical atherosclerotic extent have any relationship with dyslipidemia type and, if so, which dyslipidemia is associated with increased rates of multivessel CAC. As expected, the majority of the normolipidemia group had no CAC-affected vessels. In comparison, all dyslipidemia groups except for the hypertriglyceridemia were associated with higher rates of multivessel CAC.
With further adjustment for demographic and cardiac risk factors, the same dyslipidemia groups were still associated with multivessel CAC, even after controlling for the total CAC score.
An earlier study by Paramsothy et al. Similar to Paramsothy et al. These findings suggest that an isolated elevation in triglyceride levels may not be a pathologic risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis, although hypertriglyceridemia may still be an important factor in cardiovascular disease.
The hypertriglyceridemia group in this study also had a relatively high HDL-c of The prevalence of low HDL-c group and adjusted risk factors were identical in both studies.
Hyperlipidemia & Coronary Heart Disease
Multivariate logistic regression revealed that HDL-c is predictive of calcified plaque development independent of LDL-c. However, sensitivity and positive predictive values for HDL-c were low [ 18 ]. Furthermore, Noda et al.
They found that HDL-c cholesterol levels were more accurate for diagnosing the presence of high-risk coronary plaque with areas under receiver operating curve AUC of 0. This may explain the significance of HDL-c levels found in our study, since, unlike Paramsothy et al.
Combined hyperlipidemia, simple hypercholesterolemia, and participants with MetS had significantly increased risk of multivessel involvement of the coronary arteries in patients with subclinical CAD [ 20 ]. This is in line with Paramsothy et al. Given these findings, elevated LDL-c seems to be the principal determinant of CAC prevalence and its extent, with high TG levels having less influence [ 6172021 ].
Of notice, in the multivariate analysis, the confidence interval of the combined dyslipidemia group is rather wide because the numbers of participants with this disorder are relatively small, 3. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is largely underdiagnosed and undertreated in clinical practice per the findings of Fruchart et al.
Male gender is a recognized independent risk factor for coronary heart disease by the Framingham Risk Score. In addition, in their study of participants, McClelland et al. The same study showed that calcium amount and prevalence were steadily higher with increasing age and in Whites, whereas Asians had the highest ratio of multivessel CAC in our study.
Hyperlipidemia & Coronary Heart Disease
Coronary artery calcium, a known marker of coronary atherosclerotic plaque, has been consistently associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [ 215172324 ]. The clinical significance of the demonstrated association between dyslipidemia types and the extent of CAC, controlling for CAC score, remains unclear.
- Atherosclerosis: Process, Indicators, Risk Factors and New Hopes
- Journal of Lipids
Although the absence of CAC is not reassuring in symptomatic patients, the CAC score may be associated with myocardial perfusion defects in asymptomatic patients.
Studies have shown that CAC burden and extent predict future coronary revascularization procedures [ 24 ].Hyperlipidemia (High Cholesterol)
As Budoff et al. Independent predictors of coronary artery bypass graft versus percutaneous coronary intervention included three- or four-vessel CAC, higher CAC burden, and involvement of the left main coronary artery. The significant association between dyslipidemia types, except hypertriglyceridemia, and the extent of CAC may prompt more aggressive treatment and prevention of elevated LDL-c, low HDL-c, combined hyperlipidemia, and MetS.
Simple hypercholesterolemia may have the greatest impact in determining the severity of atherosclerotic disease, especially in those with diabetes and taking lipid-lowering medications. As others have shown, LDL-c is the dominant lipid determinant of atherosclerotic disease [ 617 ].
As the MESA study gathered data from a large, multiethnic population, the results may be widely generalizable. The imaging and laboratory procedures were standardized at a common institution. Our study also has several limitations. Although we attempted to adjust for all possible confounding factors in our model, the residual confounding by unevaluated factors cannot be completely ruled out. As we examined cross-sectional associations, the possibility of temporal and selection biases may exist.
Participants on statin therapy and with diabetes were excluded because these factors could potentially misclassify the lipid categories and confound the relationship between dyslipidemia and CAC.
We used the term dyslipidemia compatible with metabolic syndrome instead of dyslipidemia of metabolic syndrome. To define this category, we did not factor in obesity or blood pressure to isolate the impact of dyslipidemia on the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis.
The results of this study further elucidate the role of CAC in cardiovascular disease. Clinicians already use the CAC score to predict future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic patients with moderate risk factors. Recognizing the extent of coronary artery calcium may provide additional information beyond whether or not atherosclerotic disease is present.
The association of dyslipidemias with CAC extent is further evidence in support of the importance of dyslipidemia, especially simple hypercholesterolemia, as a target for therapy.
The association between multivessel coronary artery disease and the cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, had been widely studied in patients with documented clinical CVD, using invasive coronary angiography [ 2728 ].
Our study is novel to address this relationship, assessed by cardiac computed tomography, in a large multiethnic cohort free of clinical CVDs at baseline. We believe the underlying mechanisms of these associations should be relevant to disease prevention and require further investigation. Furthermore, the current findings may explain the difference when comparing the results of different studies.
For instance, in patients with low HDL-c, although the CVD risk is high independently of other cardiovascular risk factors, the clinical trials have shown lack of improvement in the cardiovascular outcome when using drug therapies to boost the level of HDL-c. Our observation highlights the fact that the relative impact of low HDL-c, and potentially the targeting pharmacotherapy, on CAD extent may vary depending on the population selected, low versus high calcium score.
Similarly, CVD outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have produced inconsistent results, meaning that no convincing evidence is available that lowering triglycerides by any approach can reduce mortality. The association between plasma TG levels both fasting and nonfasting and CV risk is often attenuated once adjusting for other lipid parameters. However, it is worthy to notice the lack of association between high TG level and CAC extent existing in our study even prior to adjusting for other lipid parameters.
A number of studies have found that the association between plasma TG levels both fasting and nonfasting and CV risk is often attenuated once adjusting for other lipid parameters, including HDL-c and non-HDL-c. An analysis conducted by the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration demonstrated that there was a significant and stepwise association between fasting and nonfasting TG levels and CVD risk.
Elevated TG levels are closely associated with higher levels of non-HDL-c and apoB and low levels of HDL-c, and this may explain why this association is weakened after adjustment for these parameters.
This is inherent in the study design since we classified the study cohort into 6 mutually exclusive dyslipidemia categories. Further research is needed in examining coronary artery calcium extent, not simply the score, as a potential tool in prognosticating, treating, and perhaps preventing subclinical atherosclerosis in otherwise low-risk populations.
Other lipid parameters such as non-HDL-c and lipoprotein a Lp a have been proposed as independent risk factors for coronary heart disease and their impact on the extent of multivessel CAC needs to be explored further. These groups account for the complexity of having more than 1 abnormal lipid parameter in the individual patients.