EPOB Microbiology Lecture 19
Some definitions: Mutualism=> Symbiotic relationship in which both partners gain (e.g. legume-rhizobium relationship, lec. called syntrophism; the example of nitrifying bacteria could be characterized as a syntrophic relationship. . Bacteria are normal inhabitants of the lower part of the urethra in both males and females. I asked the men of the internet (28 to be exact) what they think about when, why and how they define the relationship. Like a lot of men these days, I received so many messages on what a man in a relationship should be, I was bewildered. Every few years, the media tells us new .
The organisms work together in syntrophy which means "feeding together" to consume up to 80 percent of methane emitted from the ocean floor—methane that might otherwise end up contributing to climate change as a greenhouse gas in our atmosphere. Previously, Orphan and her colleagues contributed to the discovery of this microbial symbiosis, a cooperative partnership between methane-oxidizing archaea called anaerobic methanotrophs or "methane eaters" and a sulfate-reducing bacterium organisms that can "breathe" sulfate instead of oxygen that allows these organisms to consume methane using sulfate from seawater.
However, it was unclear how these cells share energy and interact within the symbiosis to perform this task. So, the Caltech team used a research submersible, called Alvin, to collect samples containing the methane-oxidizing microbial consortia from deep-ocean methane seep sediments and then brought them back to the laboratory for analysis.
Pictured is a high magnification image of sediment enriched in syntrophic consortia. In the center of the image is an overview of sediment containing cells, and individual - roughly spherical - microbial communities are shown at high magnification at the ends of lines extending from the center.
Fluorescent signals show the ANME-2c archaeal subgroup in red, and sulfate reducing bacteria are shown in green. Sediment particles appear yellow.
In some consortia, Orphan and her colleagues found the bacterial and archaeal cells were well mixed, while in other consortia, cells of the same type were clustered into separate areas. Orphan and her team wondered if the variation in the spatial organization of the bacteria and archaea within these consortia influenced their cellular activity and their ability to cooperatively consume methane. To find out, they applied a stable isotope "tracer" to evaluate the metabolic activity.
The amount of the isotope taken up by individual archaeal and bacterial cells within their microbial "neighborhoods" in each consortia was then measured with a high-resolution instrument called nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry nanoSIMS at Caltech. This allowed the researchers to determine how active the archaeal and bacterial partners were relative to their distance to one another. To their surprise, the researchers found that the spatial arrangement of the cells in consortia had no influence on their activity.
What is really notable is that there are cells that are many cell lengths away from their nearest partner that are still active," Orphan says.
To find out how the bacteria and archaea were partnering, co-first authors Grayson Chadwick BS '11a graduate student in geobiology at Caltech and a former undergraduate researcher in Orphan's lab, and Shawn McGlynn, a former postdoctoral scholar, employed spatial statistics to look for patterns in cellular activity for multiple consortia with different cell arrangements. They found that populations of syntrophic archaea and bacteria in consortia had similar levels of metabolic activity; when one population had high activity, the associated partner microorganisms were also equally active—consistent with a beneficial symbiosis.
Syntrophy - WikiVividly
However, a close look at the spatial organization of the cells revealed that no particular arrangement of the two types of organisms—whether evenly dispersed or in separate groups—was correlated with a cell's activity. Does Homer actually influence what people think a man should be? In a recent survey in Canada by the research firm Ipsos-Reid, more than 25 percent of fathers aged 18 to 34 identify with Homer Simpson when they're talking to their kids about a difficult subject, and almost 20 percent of adult children in the same age range associate their own father with Homer.
With so many confusing ideas, I started looking for wisdom on what a man should be in a relationship. I read books on marriage. They didn't say anything to me.
I read Jewish books on marriage. They had a lot of wisdom, but I was looking for more advice on what a man should be. Then I went to the original Jewish sources. I started with Adam -- the first man in the world who was in a relationship.
He wanted a wife. He asked God for a wife and God created Eve to be an "ezer k'negdo" -- a helper opposing him or a helper against him Genesis, 2: A helper against him? What in the world does that mean? I looked in the commentary at the bottom of the page which quoted the Talmud, "If the man is worthy, the woman will be his helper; if he is not worthy, she will be against him.
5 Things a Man Needs to Do in a Successful Relationship
If he doesn't, she will be against him. This one sentence changed the way I looked at relationships. It's up to the man to make it work.
If a man works on himself and develops himself to be worthy, the woman will be his partner. What happens next in the world's first relationship? Adam and Eve are in the Garden of Eden. They have one commandment: Don't eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge.
Eve eats it and then she gives it to Adam. Then Adam hides in the bushes and God asks him: Adam did you eat the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge that I commanded you not to eat? What did Adam do?
Did he take responsibility for what happened? He says to God, "The woman you sent me gave it to me and I ate it. He gave in to something he knew was wrong and then he blamed his wife.
I thought only men today did that. Does blaming his wife help Adam avoid responsibility?What does syntrophy mean?
God doesn't say, "Adam, I understand -- she pushed you into it. You're not responsible for what happened. He punishes Adam for eating the fruit, and for not using his own judgment.
I think it's significant that one of the first lessons in the first chapter of Genesis is about what a man should be in a relationship. My search led me to discover a lot of timeless wisdom that for generations fathers taught their sons -- wisdom that is so relevant today.
Today's absent father, either from long hours of work or divorce, means many boys grow up without a strong male role model. Here are five of the lessons I learned on my journey for wisdom on what a man in a relationship should be: Take responsibility Learn from Adam.
Don't do things you know are wrong and then blame others. If you make a mistake, take responsibility for your actions.