frameworks and to link contemporary theory with practical skill area. Effective teaching avoids a narrow image of early literacy as the acquisition of a set of discrete play – In the kindergarten classes (Foundation literature and literacy . to develop social relationships and focus on socially appropriate communication in context, . language and literacy learning and development, and invite them to . community contexts: Review of the related literature, Commissioned for the. As previous literature shows, a connection between narrative language and later reading skills seems to be detected when using story retelling design. However.
These experiences are composed of the speech children hear i. To understand the impact of home language experiences on DLLs' language abilities, it is necessary to explore the varied amount of exposure to and use of these languages in the home Bedore et al. Understanding the composition of language exposure and use for these children will provide a more complete description of their home language environment. Significant to DLLs' language abilities is the impact that exposure to Spanish has on both Spanish and English language abilities.
It is also necessary to understand the impact that exposure to English in the home has on DLLs' Spanish and English language abilities. The findings are mixed, however, when it comes to the influence that English exposure has on DLLs' English language abilities.
Hoff and colleagues reported that the amount of exposure to English at home supported DLL toddlers' English language abilities. In contrast, Hammer and colleagues found that increased exposure to English in the home did not impact children's rate of growth of English. Given that research on English language exposure is mixed, continued research is warranted.
Moreover, it is important to understand how children's home language use might promote vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities.
In addition to hearing language, DLL children also need to use language to develop their language abilities Bohman et al. DLL children's use of language may be particularly important for supporting their acquisition of vocabulary. Hammer and colleagues showed that both children's exposure to and use of English were related to children's vocabulary growth in their two languages.
However, limited empirical evidence further examines the role of language use in promoting vocabulary or oral comprehension abilities in DLLs.
When considering the language experiences of DLL children, both language exposure and use should be explored to better understand the language abilities of DLLs. Home literacy experiences Furthermore, it is necessary to explore activities in the home, in which language and literacy experiences may occur. These activities may further impact DLLs' vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities.
However, relatively few studies have focused on the potentially supportive influence home literacy experiences have on DLL children's language abilities.
There are several ways in which mothers influence children's language abilities, such as through mother—child literacy activities, maternal literacy activities, and the availability of literacy materials. Mother—child literacy activities Literacy activities support children's vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities Farver et al.
Three of these potentially supportive mother—child literacy activities include a frequency of book reading, b frequency of child storytelling, and c frequency of home literacy-related teaching activities e. There is a consensus in the literature that reading books at home supports vocabulary and oral comprehension development in young children. During book reading, mothers may expose their children to a variety of words and may ask their children questions, which provide children with the opportunity to learn new words and talk about new concepts Hoff, In particular, book reading at home is related to increases in vocabulary and oral comprehension ability in monolingual children Bus et al.
For example, Farver and colleagues found that the frequency of book reading at home was positively related to DLL children's receptive vocabulary abilities in their most fluent language. Another important mother—child literacy activity is child storytelling. Studies show that the quality of child storytelling supports children's language abilities Miller et al. In addition, storytelling may be beneficial because using language may help children understand and internalize language, which might not otherwise be accomplished by only hearing it Bohman et al.
Therefore, more frequent opportunities to tell stories at home may support children's vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities. The studies about child storytelling have focused on quality; however, no known studies have examined the relation between the frequency with which children tell stories at home and children's vocabulary and oral comprehension abilities.
This study addresses this gap in the literature. Furthermore, teaching literacy and language-related skills at home e. These findings are similar to the limited available research with DLLs. For example, Hammer, Miccio, and Wagstaff did not find a relation between maternal teaching activities and DLL children's English literacy abilities.How to Encourage Children to Read - Reading Lessons
Continued investigation is warranted to better understand the specific components of home literacy experiences that lend support to children's language abilities, particularly because relatively few studies have been conducted with preschool DLLs. Maternal literacy activities Mothers' own literacy activities are related to their monolingual children's language abilities Burgess et al.
These behaviors include reading books, newspapers, magazines, sales ads, or the Bible; checking out a book from the library; using a dictionary, an encyclopedia, or recipes; and sending cards or letters i. Mothers' literacy activities might help to provide children with a model of positive literacy usage Burgess et al. Empirical evidence from Burgess and colleagues documented that middle-income parents' literacy practices promoted their monolingual children's expressive language abilities. For instance, Gonzalez and Uhing did not find a strong relation between parents' literacy behaviors and their DLL children's expressive and receptive language development in Spanish and English.
Availability of literacy materials The availability of literacy materials in the home may indicate that children have opportunities to participate in literacy and language-related activities. One hypothesis is that the associations between spoken language and later outcomes are causal.
Alternatively, the association of language and reading problems with behaviour problems may rest on a common underlying condition such as a neuromaturational delay that results in poor achievement in both domains. There are several possible causal relationships between language and behavioural disorders: This supports the notion that LI in conjunction with RD results in the child facing excessive failure, particularly within the classroom, which in turn results in reactive behaviour problems.
Another possibility is a bidirectional relationship between language and behavioural difficulties. This idea is supported by evidence that language difficulties at age three increase the risk of conduct disorders at age five, and vice versa.
Several recent studies have addressed the question of whether certain profiles of language weaknesses are associated with different types of behavioural outcomes. There is also a need for classroom-based studies of how children with language difficulties respond to communication demands and failure.
Finally, given the risk of adverse outcomes such as incarceration or victimization, there is a need to continue to identify experiences and skills that contribute to resilience in children with early language difficulties. The basis of the relationship between early spoken language and later reading development is thought to be causal in nature, such that spoken language skills, especially phonological awareness and listening comprehension, are fundamental precursors to later successful reading.
Children with limitations in phonological processing are at risk for early decoding problems, which can then lead to problems of reading comprehension. Children with problems of listening comprehension are at risk for reading comprehension problems even if they can decode words.
These skills can also dynamically interact over development. The basis of the relationship between spoken language and later behaviour problems is less clear, although it seems possible that there are multiple mechanisms that could explain the relationship.
In particular, academic difficulties that result from LI may contribute to the increased risk of behavioural disorders. Implications The evidence is compelling that a foundation in spoken language competence is important for the successful achievement of academic and social competence.
Children with poor language skills are therefore at risk for reading and psychosocial problems. Language difficulties could be identified efficiently at school entry. This identification process should be an especially high priority for children who already show signs of behavioural difficulties, given the high incidence and low identification of language difficulties in this group.
Interventions are available for promoting language growth, and in particular, numerous programs exist to promote phonological awareness.
Additionally, intervention efforts need to focus on approaches that provide supportive educational environments, to reduce the stressors that may result in maladaptive behaviours. Finally, early intervention efforts are warranted, to support the development of language skills prior to school entry. Preventing reading difficulties in young children. National Academy Press; Oullette G, Beers A. A not-so-simple view of reading: The Influence of Reading on Vocabulary Growth: A Case for a Matthew Effect.
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