Living In A Dense City Makes Citizens Healthier
Read planning news from across the country. report released on Monday by the Department of Housing and Urban Development. .. local developer Mike Miller is announcing his new relationship with Frank Cassata and having formed the entity Cassata Miller Development, LLC. announce their study plans to . The City of Johannesburg's Citizen Relationship and Urban Management The initiative was part of the City's ongoing Integrated Community Outreach. PDF | Traditional urban planning processes typically happen in pair of tweets as defined by a specific set of functional relationships in each.
These systems do not only provide food, but also produce potable water from waste water, and can recycle organic waste back to energy and nutrients. Health inequalities and food justice[ edit ] A report by the USDA, determined that "Evidence is both abundant and robust enough for us to conclude that Americans living in low-income and minority areas tend to have poor access to healthy food", and that the "structural inequalities" in these neighborhoods "contribute to inequalities in diet and diet-related outcomes".
When urban agriculture leads to locally grown fresh produce sold at affordable prices in food deserts, access to healthy food is not just available for those who live in wealthy areas, thereby leading to greater equity in rich and poor neighborhoods.
Community members engaged in urban agriculture improve local knowledge about healthy ways to fulfill dietary needs. Urban agriculture can also better the mental health of community members. Buying and selling quality products to local producers and consumers allows community members to support one another, which may reduce stress.
Thus, urban agriculture can help improve conditions in poor communities, where residents experience higher levels of stress due to a perceived lack of control over the quality of their lives. Urban farmers who follow sustainable agriculture methods can not only help to build local food system infrastructure, but can also contribute to improving local air, and water and soil quality. Sustainable urban agriculture can also promote worker protection and consumer rights.
Although local produce is often believed to be clean and healthy, many urban farmers ranging from New York urban farmer Frank Meushke  to Presidential First Lady Michelle Obama  have found their products contained high levels of leaddue to soil contaminationwhich is harmful to human health when consumed. The soil contaminated with high lead levels often originates from old house paint which contained lead, vehicle exhaustor atmospheric deposition.
Without proper education on the risks of urban farming and safe practices, urban consumers of urban agricultural produce may face additional health-related issues  A small urban farm in Amsterdam Rooftop urban farming at the Food Roof Farm in downtown St.
Louis, MO Creating a community-based infrastructure for urban agriculture means establishing local systems to grow and process food and transfer it from farmer producer to consumer. Some projects have collectively tended community farms on common landmuch like that of eighteenth-century Boston Common. Other community garden projects use the allotment garden model, in which gardeners care for individual plots in a larger gardening area, often sharing a tool shed and other amenities.
Independent urban gardeners also grow food in individual yards and on roofs. Garden sharing projects seek to pair producers with the land, typically, residential yard space. Roof gardens allow for urban dwellers to maintain green spaces in the city without having to set aside a tract of undeveloped land.
Rooftop farms allow otherwise unused industrial roofspace to be used productively, creating work and profit.Workshop on Good Practices in Urban Management at ASCI
Food processing on a community level has been accommodated by centralizing resources in community tool sheds and processing facilities for farmers to share. Different areas of the city have tool banks where resources like tools, compostmulch, tomato stakes, seeds, and education can be shared and distributed with the gardeners in that cluster.
Detroit's Garden Resource Program Collaborative also strengthens their gardening community by providing to their member's transplants; education on gardening, policy, and food issues; and by building connectivity between gardeners through workgroups, potlucks, tours, field trips, and cluster workdays.
In Brazil, "Cities Without Hunger" has generated a public policy for the reconstruction of abandoned areas with food production and has improved the green areas of the community. Farmers' marketssuch as the farmers' market in Los Angelesprovide a common land where farmers can sell their product to consumers. Large cities tend to open their farmer's markets on the weekends and one day in the middle of the week.
However, to create a consumer dependency on urban agriculture and to introduce local food production as a sustainable career for farmers, markets would have to be open regularly.
It finds that suburban places, with their car-centric transport and more spread out design, make people less healthy over time, compared to city centers.
The researchers argue that lower density development encourages sedentary behavior, including driving to stores and work, and less cycling and walking.
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The researchers argue that lower-density development encourages sedentary behavior, including driving to stores and work, and less cycling and walking. The average housing density in the U. That includes inner cities where people are more likely to live in apartment blocks and smaller terraced homes, and where walking to work and for shopping is normalized. Higher density leads to more walking on average, more social interaction, and better access to services, like health care. But when cities become too crowded the positive health benefits tail away.
But, extrapolated to a whole city or country, it may be a very big deal. The following sections focus on these two goals and identify the specific impacts of retail units. However, residents, environmentalists and planners argue that excessive retail development has been accompanied by impervious parking areas that increase both storm water runoff—washing nitrogen, heavy metals, and sediments into urban streams—and local urban heat island UHI.
Enhanced UHI requires more energy for cooling in the summer. For example, a typical shopping center requires four parking spaces per thousand square feet of Gross Leasable Area GLA 5and, as a result, large impervious areas are built for parking. In addition, the box-like structure of the buildings increases their negative impacts on the UHI. These boxes are built to be economically efficient and functional, but not environmentally friendly.
Wal-Mart has begun building solar panels on the roofs of their big-box stores, which reduces the negative impacts of these buildings on the UHI. Doak,because they promote the development of traditional city centers, urban regeneration plans and programs, and brownfield redevelopments, leading to compact cities. Such cities decrease the ecological footprint of urban areas and reduce energy consumption and pollution, because they encourage walking, have improved public transport access Bromley et al.
Green roofs on big-box stores also help reduce the UHI. There are no quantitative studies assessing the energy consumption, water pollution, and UHI created by retail developments. Traffic-Induced Environmental Issues 30Retail centers built at the outskirts of cities on major traffic arterials or transit interchanges achieve high visibility and accessibility, but attract heavy traffic, which congests the transportation network and also generates a high number of accidents due to the necessarily large number of turns.
An effective retail policy should minimize the use of private cars, promote developments readily accessible by public transportation, promote clustered units attracting multi-purpose trips Guy,and adopt an integrated retail and transport development policy, such as in Singapore Ibrahim, Banister investigates the impacts of density, settlement size, and employment location, and suggests that shopping areas should be promoted at higher density locations to reduce trip lengths and the number of car trips, with easier access to public transportation.
Local shopping is to create a sense of community and to enhance neighborhood quality of life. However, Handy and Clifton suggest that increasing local shopping opportunities in a typical U.
They find that most residents walk to local stores only occasionally. He finds that neighborhood retail districts are unlikely to survive on local walk-to shoppers alone.
Retail centers increase the traffic load in the vicinity, particularly during evenings and weekends, and congestion can occur without warning. While the average distance traveled to a super center is longer, the number of trips may be smaller, but this is not easily assessed due to cross shopping.
For this reason, the use of total vehicle miles traveled VMT as an indicator of traffic impact is ambiguous. Retail centers cause many changes in the transportation system of an urban area. For example, the total number of accidents around major shopping centers is greater than in nearby non-retail areas Cuyahoga County Planning Commission, The quality of the transportation mode is also an important factor.
Gautschi analyzes the impact of transportation modes on consumers patronizing different retail centers, and finds that consumers consider a combination of retail center attributes assortment, center design, hours of operation and transportation mode characteristics travel time, cost, performance, safety.
The application of such patronage models could assist policy makers in allocating budgets for transportation improvements. Comfort accounts for Tools and models for retail planning 34Retailing has unique characteristics, because its goals are both profit making and public urban service, hence the clash between public and private sectors. Public sector leaders try to eliminate retail saturation and offer an equally accessible, efficient retailing network that will have a minimal impact on the urban transportation network.
Private sector leaders, on the other hand, try to maximize their profits and absorb all of the disposable income available in the urban area. A balance between these two goals is necessary for effective and sustainable land use development and urban growth.
Therefore, the relationship between retailing unit attributes—such as size, number of stores, tenant mix, design, visibility, and access—and trade area characteristics—such as population size, income and age structure, housing, employment patterns, and distance to the center—gains importance in analyzing existing retail planning strategies and policies.
Decision makers must answer the following questions: The qualitative approach involves a set of plans, strategies and development schemes, whereas the quantitative approach involves trade area models. The former provides specific steps to overcome the detrimental effects of urban decentralization, and the latter is used to assess the existing distribution of retail supply and demand so that new strategies and policies can be designed and adopted.
The two approaches are intertwined and can be used simultaneously to achieve urban resilience.
With available demographic, socio-economic and physical data, and geographic information systems, trade area models can become effective tools for location analysis, site selection, and shopping center design, and can be applied to commercial zoning, design ordinances, and land use regulations.
Using a multivariate model of local development incentives, Lewis finds that retail is the land use most likely to benefit from financial incentives or zoning changes. Wassmer and Edwards point to the links between local government reliance on sales tax and the likelihood of zoning vacant land for retail: Lewis shows that, while trying to attract retail development, local governments discourage non-retail developments that do not generate sales tax revenues.
In addition to favorable zoning, some local governments welcome supercenters with tax subsidies or infrastructure assistance Boarnet et al. The preferences of local governments in accepting or rejecting retail centers shape the pattern of retail development. There is a downside to accepting retail activities, as they lead, in some cities, to urban sprawl and retail decentralization. Some local governments, being aware of these effects, control for the development of very large retail centers by introducing size caps, which can be estimated by trade area models.
Big-box stores are the specific object of these regulations, making the development of supercenter and warehouse club stores difficult. Limiting the space devoted to nontaxable goods has been another strategy for controlling the development of big-box stores Bernstein Research, Trade area models, in particular multivariate regression models, can also be used to determine the maximum amount of space devoted to nontaxable goods. Thus, building a larger retail establishment is economically more advantageous for developers.
Clauretie and Jameson estimate a hedonic price model and find that federal tax laws encourage the construction of smaller centers, despite the economies of scale available with larger properties.
The effects of urban growth policies on retail must also be assessed. However, Wassmeralso using regression analysis, finds significant impacts of land taxation and urban growth boundaries UGB on retail activity outside central cities.
Therefore, UGBs appear useful in reducing retail decentralization. Wassmer suggests that retail decentralization is undesirable when costs are higher than benefits for the whole metropolitan region, and shows that reliance on property taxes, instead of general sales taxes, can reduce retail decentralization. Liu measures the impact on retail sales of total local government expenditures LGE and per capita local government revenues LGRderived from non-property taxes.
He finds that LGEs, in particular on police and fire protection, have the third strongest positive impact on both total retail sales and retail sales per capita, after population and income. In contrast, LGRs have a negative impact on retail sales. Liu suggests that these findings are of practical importance to local governments with respect to tax rate changes and revenue collection.
Urban agriculture - Wikipedia
However, trade area models can be helpful to monitor social change in local retail areas when new retail facilities are opened. In-depth interviews and surveys with users, shop owners and local authorities, on consumption habits and trends, mobility patterns, shopping experience and expectations, and relevant policies, can be useful to assess this change.
In particular, comparing local shopping spaces in the public realm with shopping malls can be helpful.
Using a logit model, they analyze the nature of shopping trips and the size of retail market areas, and assess whether shopping center visits reduce visits to city center local shopping spaces. They find that city centers are not adversely affected by out-of-town centers in terms of fun shopping, but that some customers abandon these centers in cases of run shopping, when predetermined goods must be bought quickly, and economic efficiency is the primary driver.
Thus, when the allocation of shopping centers can be controlled, traditional shopping areas can survive and enhance social sustainability. Tellerdiscussing generic similarities and conceptual differences between shopping malls and main streets, measures the attractiveness of the two forms of retailing by using structural equation modeling, including such factors as accessibility, parking, retail and non-retail tenant mix, merchandise value, personnel, atmosphere, orientation and infrastructure.
He finds that the set of retail tenants and the atmosphere are the most important factors in all cases, with accessibility and personnel of secondary importance. Conclusions 42This paper has explored the economic, social and environmental aspects of city center and large-scale retail developments in relation to urban resilience.
It has described the issues and policies related to a more sustainable retail development. They offer a retail environment for specific social groups, but exclude the elderly, low-income households, and households without cars.
Ideally, all types of retail outlets should be integral parts of the retail hierarchy. However, trends in suburbanization and edge city development, consumer mobility, retail chaining and decentralization, and zoning regulations, all encourage out-of-town developments. Their share of the retail market is relatively high i. Local authorities prefer such developments because of the taxes they collect and the ease of monitoring shopping center sales.
Central authorities also prefer such developments because they demonstrate how much an area has developed and urbanized, which is a sign of progress and advancement. Today, in many countries, the share of gross domestic product occupied by retail activities is high when compared to earlier decades. This large-scale, global organization of the retail sector provides unique opportunities for chain stores located within these centers. These retailers enjoy the benefits of agglomeration economies, ease of access, the marketing power of a larger venue, and pedestrian traffic.
For the traditional retailers on city streets, however, the situation is reversed, and these retailers face economic instability. Their competitive power is smaller and their ability to adapt is more erratic. Central business districts appear in danger of losing their most important actors, the independent traditional retailers. Their major goal should be to organize and foster economic stability through various programs and policies.
For shopping centers, these advocates are the center managers, who need to consider profit making for their tenants and themselves. However, for traditional retailers, these advocates should be public authorities. Along with making profits, they need to consider the economic vitality and viability of the most important part of the city, the central business district.
They need to explore new methods to improve and increase the economic resilience of these retailers. Cities with diversified economies have avoided the effects of recession, and diversity of shopping venues should similarly be beneficial for economic resilience. A careful consideration of the tenant mix of city centers and shopping centers will help all stakeholders, and public authorities are in a position to control, monitor and sustain such programs.
A critical density should be fostered for commercial areas as well. Fostering mixed-use planning strategies, developing walkable areas, and enhancing mass transportation will encourage people to visit city centers, and therefore to shop at street retailers more frequently. For example, when trade area boundaries are determined, regression models can be used to estimate retail supply and demand levels in each trade area, and these estimates can help limit the amount of supply both in inner city neighborhoods and urban fringes.
Further, their integration into urban policy would help set supply standards and preserve local retailing and public spaces, thus preventing food deserts and privatized and exclusionary public spaces. While trade area models have been used for site selection, potential sales estimation, and decisions about new center developments, public sector officials may also use them for public policy and management.
Further research should focus on integrating social issues into trade area models, and on assessing water pollution, energy consumption, urban heat island, and traffic externalities generated by retail centers. Top of page Bibliography Adamchak, D. Rural Sociology 64 1: Economic Development Quarterly 26 4: Disparities in neighborhood food environments: Economic Geography 86 4: The future of public space: Journal of American Planning Association 67 1: Reducing the need to travel.
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 24 3: Urban Studies 40 8: Job creation or destruction? Labor market effects of Wal-Mart expansion. Review of Economic and Statistics 87 1: A simultaneous model and empirical test of the demand and supply of retail space. Journal of Real Estate Research 16 1: Bernstein ResearchApril Not In My Backyard: Shopping Center Development Handbook.