Indo-French relations - La France en Inde / France in India
Just as with all other aspects of the European regard for Indians, gender have been seen as incestuous for Two Spirits to have a relationship with each other. . Quote. Yael S. Oct Hi, as a Jew, the term "Native American. Europe and India, however, have not had such a relationship exclusively. is perceived as, and I quote Nirmal Verma once more, "ever different from the self. The discussions and joint statements during the 14th India- EU summit will for more than billion euros, in a balanced trade relationship.
This made many Vaishya traders look to the seas to acquire new gold, of which Southeast Asia was abundant. However, the conclusion that Indianization was just spread through trade is insufficient, as Indianization permeated through all classes of Southeast Asian society, not just the merchant classes. This hypothesis effectively explains state formation in Southeast Asia, as these warriors came with the intention of conquering the local peoples and establishing their own political power in the region.
However, this theory hasn't attracted much interest from historians as there is very little literary evidence to support it.
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These Brahmans brought with them many of the Hindu religious and philosophical traditions and spread them to the elite classes of Southeast Asian polities. Once these traditions were adopted into the elite classes, it disseminated throughout all the lower classes, thus explaining the Indianization present in all classes of Southeast Asian society. Brahmans were also experts in art and architecture, and political affairs, thus explaining the adoption of many Indian style law codes and architecture into Southeast Asian society  See also: Literature about Southeast Asia and South Asian literature Scripts in Sanskrit discovered during the early centuries of the Common Era are the earliest known forms of writing to have extended all the way to Southeast Asia.
Its gradual impact ultimately resulted in its widespread domain as a means of dialect which evident in regions, from Bangladesh to Cambodia, Malaysia and Thailand and additionally a few of the larger Indonesian islands.
In addition, alphabets from languages spoken in Burmese, Thai, Laos and Cambodia are a variations formed off of Indian ideals that have localized the language.
Sanskrit terminology and vernacular appears in ancient courts to establish procedures that have been structured by Indian models such as a system composed of a code of laws. The concept of legislation demonstrated through codes of law and organizations particularly the idea of "God King" was embraced by numerous rulers of Southeast Asia. Many rulers following even viewed themselves as "reincarnations or descendants" of the Hindu Gods.
However once Buddhism began entering the nations, this practiced view was eventually altered. Religion, authority and legitimacy[ edit ] The pre-Indic political and social systems in Southeast Asia were marked by a relative indifference towards lineage descent.
Hindu God kingship enabled rulers to supersede loyalties, forge cosmopolitan polities and the worship of Shiva and Vishnu was combined with ancestor worship, so that Khmer, Javanese, and Cham rulers claimed semi-divine status as descendants of a God. Hindu traditions, especially the relationship to the sacrality of the land and social structures, are inherent in Hinduism's transnational features.
It also allows for multiple forms of divinity, centered upon the Trimurti the triad of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, the deities responsible for the creation, preservation, and destruction of the universe. An essential factor for the spread and adaptation of these religions originated from trading systems of the third and fourth century.
Along the Mekong delta, evidence of Indianized religious models can be observed in communities labeled Funan. There can be found the earliest records engraved on a rock in Vocanh.
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Indian religion was profoundly absorbed by local cultures that formed their own distinctive variations of these structures in order to reflect their own ideals.
Despite the fundamental cultural integration, these kingdoms were autonomous in their own right and functioned independently. The Manusmritian ancient authoritative book on Hindu law, maintained that the system is a basis of order and regularity of society. Once born into a group, one can not move to different levels. Lower castes are never able to climb higher within the caste system, limiting the economies progress from growing.
The system divides Hindus into four categories — Brahmins priests and teachersKshatriyas rulers and warriorsVaishyas merchants and farmersand Shudras craftsmen and labourers.
They introduced the caste system to the region, especially to Java, Bali, Maduraand Sumatra. The adopted caste system was not as strict as in India, tempered to the local context.
It also promoted the upbringing of highly organized central states. The Brahmins were still able to implement their religion, political ideas, literature, mythology, and art. Indian maritime historyIndian Ocean tradeSilk Roadand Ancient trade routes It is unknown how immigration, interaction, and settlement took place, whether by key figures from India or through Southeast Asians visiting India who took elements of Indian culture back home.
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It is likely that Hindu and Buddhist traders, priests, and princes traveled to Southeast Asia from India in the first few centuries of the Common Era and eventually settled there. Strong impulse most certainly came from the region's ruling classes who invited Brahmans to serve at their courts as priests, astrologers and advisers.
Brahmans and priests from India proper played a key role in supporting ruling dynasties through exact rituals. Dynastic consolidation was the basis for more centralized kingdoms that emerged in Java, Sumatra, Cambodia, Burma, and along the central and south coasts of Vietnam from the 4th to 8th centuries. The caste system, although adopted, was never applied universally and reduced to serve for a selected group of nobles only. Borobudur in Java and Angkor in Cambodia are, apart from their grandeur, examples of a distinctly developed regional culture, style, and expression.
The Pala dynasty of Bengalwhich controlled the heartland of Buddhist India, maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya. Funan was a polity that encompassed the southernmost part of the Indochinese peninsula during the 1st to 6th centuries. The name Funan is not found in any texts of local origin from the period, and so is considered an exonym based on the accounts of two Chinese diplomats, Kang Tai and Zhu Ying who sojourned there in the mid-3rd century CE.
Centered at the lower Mekong Funan is noted as the oldest Hindu culture in this region, which suggests prolonged socio-economic interaction with India and maritime trading partners of the Indosphere.
Like its predecessor, Chenla occupied a strategic position where the maritime trade routes of the Indosphere and the East Asian cultural sphere converged, resulting in prolonged socio-economic and cultural influence, along with the adoption of the Sanskrit epigraphic system of the south Indian Pallava dynasty and Chalukya dynasty.
Langkasuka -langkha Sanskrit for "resplendent land" -sukkha of "bliss" was an ancient Hindu kingdom located in the Malay Peninsula. The kingdom, along with the Old Kedah settlement, are probably the earliest territorial footholds founded on the Malay Peninsula. According to tradition, the founding of the kingdom happened in the 2nd century; Malay legends claim that Langkasuka was founded at Kedahand later moved to Pattani.
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The kingdom of Champa or Lin-yi in Chinese controlled what is now south and central Vietnam since approximately CE. The dominant religion was Hinduism and the culture was heavily influenced by India. By the late fifteenth century, the Vietnamese — proponents of the Sinosphere — had eradicated the last remaining traces of the once powerful maritime kingdom of Champa.
The Khmer Empire was established by the early 9th century in a mythical initiation and consecration ceremony by founder Jayavarman II at Mount Kulen Mount Mahendra in CE  A succession of powerful sovereigns, continuing the Hindu devaraja tradition, reigned over the classical era of Khmer civilization until the 11th century.
Buddhism was then introduced temporarily into royal religious practice, with discontinuities and decentralisation resulting in subsequent removal. During this period of the Khmer empire, societal functions of administrationagriculture, architecture, hydrologylogisticsurban planningliterature and the arts saw an unprecedented degree of development, refinement and accomplishment from the distinct expression of Hindu cosmology.
From the 9th century until the abrupt end of the Hanthawaddy Kingdom inthe Mon kingdoms HariphunchaiPeguPagan were notable for facilitating Indianized cultural exchange in lower Burma, in particular by having strong ties with Sri Lanka. Search European Union and India are natural allies The discussions and joint statements during the 14th India- EU summit will help us put Pakistan on the defensive on terrorism analysis Updated: Oct 10, The European Union and India will step up efforts to counter violent extremism and radicalisation, particularly online, and enhance military cooperation for maritime security in the Indian Ocean and beyond.
The Indian origin community, at 2. France, a leading member of the EU, is an important strategic partner, with high technology cooperation in defence, space, and civil nuclear.
EU also has a growing voice in international relations, even though on many issues its constituent members retain their independent voice and position. Its members regularly coordinate positions. Germany, now emerging as the leader in Europe, so far prefers to stake a position through EU mechanisms.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message The EU and India agreed on 29 September at the EU-India summit in MarseilleFrance's largest commercial port, to expand their co-operation in the fields of nuclear energy and environmental protection and deepen their strategic partnership. French President Nicolas Sarkozythe EU's rotating president, said at a joint press conference at the summit that "EU welcomes India, as a large country, to engage in developing nuclear energy, adding that this clean energy will be helpful for the world to deal with the global climate change.
This matter will come up and I hope some good results will emerge out of that meeting," Singh said when asked about the issue. Singh said that he was "very satisfied" with the results of the summit. He added that EU and India have "common values" and the two economies are complementary to each other.