Eighty Years' War - Wikipedia
The Anglo-Spanish War (–) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared. The war was. trajectory and set of concerns, yet bearing direct relation to the questions posed .. The Empire of the Cities: Emperor Charles V, the Comunero Revolt, and the 65 J. H. Elliott, “A Non-Revolutionary Society: Castile in the s,” in Spain, two representatives in the Cortes, or parliament of Castile, was required to be a. In , Charles was faced with an uncontainable rebellion in Scotland and could .. “Spanish Match” had on his relations with the Parliament of Even here The Anglo-Spanish War of proved a miserable and ill-led affair for. England See: Raymond Fagel, “El camino español por mar: los soldados.
Plantation owners grew apprehensive about the growing numbers of slaves running to the swamps and Indian-controlled areas of Florida. American slave owners pressured the U. Southern slave owners refused to quietly accept the continued presence of armed black men in Florida.
During the War ofa ragtag assortment of Georgia slave owners joined by a plethora of armed opportunists raided Spanish and British-owned plantations along the St. These private citizens received U. Envious eyes looked upon these lands. After bitter conflict that often pitted Americans against a collection of Native Americans and former slaves, Spain eventually agreed to transfer the territory to the U.
Francis Newton Thorpe ed. Government Printing Office, After the purchase, planters from the Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia entered Florida. However, the influx of settlers into the Florida territory was temporarily halted in the mids by the outbreak of the Second Seminole War This became the template for future action. Presidents, since at least Thomas Jefferson, had long discussed removal, but President Andrew Jackson took the most dramatic action.
Jackson emphasized this paternalism—the belief that the government was acting in the best interest of Native peoples— in his State of the Union Address.
Despite many tribal members adopting some Euro-American ways, including intensified agriculture, slave ownership, and Christianity; state and federal governments pressured the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Cherokee nations to sign treaties and surrender land. Many of these tribal nations used the law in hopes of protecting their lands. Beginning inGeorgian officials asked the federal government to negotiate with the Cherokee to secure lucrative lands. Georgia grew impatient with the process of negotiation and abolished existing state agreements with the Cherokee that had guaranteed rights of movement and jurisdiction of tribal law.
Andrew Jackson penned a letter soon after taking office that encouraged the Cherokee, among others, to voluntarily relocate to the West. The discovery of gold in Georgia in the fall of further antagonized the situation.
The Cherokee appealed to the Supreme Court against Georgia to prevent dispossession. Jackson wanted a solution that might preserve peace and his reputation. These negotiations opened a rift within the Cherokee nation. Cherokee leader John Ridge believed removal was inevitable and pushed for a treaty that would give the best terms.
The Jackson administration refused any deal that fell short of large-scale removal of the Cherokee from Georgia, thereby fueling a devastating and violent intra-tribal battle between the two factions.
Eventually tensions grew to the point that several treaty advocates were assassinated by members of the national faction.
bgwright | THE AMERICAN YAWP
This treaty ceded lands in Georgia for five million dollars and, the signatories hoped, limiting future conflicts between the Cherokee and white settlers. However, most of the tribe refused to adhere to the terms, viewing the treaty as illegitimately negotiated. In response, John Ross pointed out the U. We did so—you asked us to form a republican government: Adopting your own as our model. You asked us to cultivate the earth, and learn the mechanic arts.
You asked us to learn to read. You asked us to cast away our idols and worship your god. Now you demand we cede to you our lands. That we will not do. But over 60, Indians were forced west by the opening of the Civil War. In the Old Northwest, Odawa and Ojibwe communities in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, resisted removal as many lived on land north of desirable farming land.
Moreover, some Ojibwe and Odawa individuals purchased land independently. They formed successful alliances with missionaries to help advocate against removal, as well as some traders and merchants who depended on trade with Native peoples. Tribal nations blended traditional cultural practices, including common land systems, with western practices including constitutional governments, common school systems, and creating an elite slaveholding class.
Beginning in the late eighteenth-century, the Comanche rose to power in the Southern Plains region of what is now the southwestern United States. By quickly adapting to the horse culture first introduced by the Spanish, the Comanche transitioned from a foraging economy into a mixed hunting and pastoral society.
Instead, the Comanche remained in power and controlled the economy of the Southern Plains. A flexible political structure allowed the Comanche to dominate other Indian groups as well as Mexican and American settlers. In the s, the Comanche launched raids into northern Mexico, ending what had been an unprofitable but peaceful diplomatic relationship with Mexico.
At the same time, they forged new trading relationships with Anglo-American traders in Texas. Throughout this period, the Comanche and several other independent Native groups, particularly the Kiowa, Apache, and Navajo engaged in thousands of violent encounters with Northern Mexicans. Collectively, these encounters comprised an ongoing war during the s and s as tribal nations vied for power and wealth.
By the s, Comanche power peaked with an empire that controlled a vast territory in the trans-Mississippi west known as Comancheria. By trading in Texas and raiding in Northern Mexico, the Comanche controlled the flow of commodities, including captives, livestock, and trade goods.
They practiced a fluid system of captivity and captive trading, rather than a rigid chattel system. The Comanche used captives for economic exploitation but also adopted captives into kinship networks. This allowed for the assimilation of diverse peoples in the region into the empire. The ongoing conflict in the region had sweeping consequences on both Mexican and American politics. In the Great Basin region, Mexican Independence also escalated patterns of violence.
This region, on the periphery of the Spanish empire, was nonetheless integrated in the vast commercial trading network of the West. Mexican officials and Anglo-American traders entered the region with their own imperial designs. New forms of violence spread into the homelands of the Paiute and Western Shoshone.
Traders, settlers, and Mormon religious refugees, aided by U. This expansion of the American state into the Great Basin meant groups such as the Ute, Cheyenne and Arapahoe had to compete over land, resources, captives, and trade relations with Anglo-Americans. Eventually, white incursion and ongoing Indian Wars resulted in traumatic dispossession of land and the struggle for subsistence. The federal government attempted more than relocation of Americans Indians.
However, providing schooling for American Indians under the auspices of the Civilization program also allowed the federal government to justify taking more land. Removal and Americanization reinforced Americans sense of cultural dominance.
Leaders hoped education would help ensuing generations to protect political sovereignty. Inthe Cherokee Nation opened a public school system that within two years included eighteen schools.
Bythe system expanded to twenty-one schools with a national enrollment of 1, pupils. Life and Culture in the West The dream of creating a democratic utopia in the West ultimately rested on those who picked up their possessions and their families and moved west.
Western settlers usually migrated as families and settled along navigable and potable rivers. Settlements often coalesced around local traditions, especially religion, carried from eastern settlements.
These shared understandings encouraged a strong sense of cooperation among western settlers that forged communities on the frontier. Before the Mexican War, the West for most Americans still referred to the fertile area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River with a slight amount of overspill beyond its banks. With soil exhaustion and land competition increasing in the East, most early western migrants sought a greater measure of stability and self-sufficiency by engaging in small scale farming.
Boosters of these new agricultural areas along with the U. Women migrants bore the unique double burden of travel while also being expected to conform to restrictive gender norms. These values accompanied men and women as they traveled west to begin their new lives. While many of these societal standards endured, there often existed an openness of frontier society that resulted in modestly more opportunities for women.
Husbands needed partners in setting up a homestead and working in the field to provide food for the family. Suitable wives were often in short supply, enabling some to informally negotiate more power in their households.
This debate centered on the proper role of the U. Some saw frontier development as a self-driven undertaking that necessitated private risk and investment devoid of government interference. In the end, federal aid proved essential for the conquest and settlement of the region. American artist George Catlin traveled west to paint Native Americans. Economic busts constantly threatened western farmers and communities. The dream of subsistence and stability abruptly ended as many migrants lost their land and felt the hand of the distant market economy forcing them even farther west to escape debt.
As a result, the federal government consistently sought to increase access to land in the West, including efforts to lower the amount of land required for purchase. Smaller lots made it easier for more farmers to clear land and begin farming faster. Improvements in travel and exchange fueled economic growth in the s and s. Canal improvements expanded in the East, while road building prevailed in the West.
Congress continued to allocate funds for internal improvements. Federal money pushed the National Road, begun infarther west every year. Laborers needed to construct these improvements increased employment opportunities and encouraged non-farmers to move to the West. Wealth promised by engagement with the new economy was hard to reject.
However, roads were expensive to build and maintain and some Americans strongly opposed spending money on these improvements. The use of steamboats grew quickly throughout the s and into the s. As water trade and travel grew in popularity, local and state, and federal funds helped connect rivers and streams. Hundreds of miles of new canals cut through the eastern landscape.
The most notable of these early projects was the Erie Canal. The profitability of the canal helped New York outpace its east coast rivals to become the center for commercial import and export in the United States. Railroad boosters encouraged the rapid growth of towns and cities along their routes. Not only did rail lines promise to move commerce faster, but the rails also encouraged the spreading of towns farther away from traditional waterway locations.
Technological limitations, constant repairs, conflicts with American Indians, and political disagreements, all hampered railroading and kept canals and steamboats as integral parts of the transportation system. Nonetheless, this early establishment of railroads enabled a rapid expansion after the Civil War.
Economic chains of interdependence stretched over hundreds of miles of land and through thousands of contracts and remittances. After gaining its independence from Spain inMexico hoped to attract new settlers to its northern areas to create a buffer between it and the powerful Comanche. New immigrants, mostly from the southern United States, poured into Mexican Texas.
InMexico, hoping to quell both anger and immigration, outlawed slavery and required all new immigrants to convert to Catholicism. American immigrants, eager to expand their agricultural fortunes, largely ignored these requirements.
In response, Mexican authorities closed their territory to any new immigration in — a prohibition ignored by Americans who often squatted on public lands. Santa Anna, governing as a dictator, repudiated the federalist Constitution ofpursued a policy of authoritarian central control, and crushed several revolts throughout Mexico.
After the Mexican government angrily rejected the offer, Texian leaders soon abandoned their fight for the Constitution of and declared independence on March 2, At the Alamo and Goliad, Santa Anna crushed smaller rebel forces and massacred hundreds of Texian prisoners. The battle of San Jacinto lasted only eighteen minutes and resulted in a decisive victory for the Texians, who retaliated for previous Mexican atrocities by killing fleeing and surrendering Mexican soldiers for hours after the initial assault.
Santa Anna was captured in the aftermath and compelled to sign the Treaty of Velasco on May 14,by which he agreed to withdraw his army from Texas and acknowledged Texas independence. Although a new Mexican government never recognized the Republic of Texas, the United States and several other nations gave the new country diplomatic recognition.
American politicians feared that adding Texas to the Union would provoke a war with Mexico and re-ignite sectional tensions by throwing off the balance between free and slave states. However, after his expulsion from the Whig party, President John Tyler saw Texas statehood as the key to saving his political career. Inhe began work on opening annexation to national debate. Harnessing public outcry over the issue, Democrat James K.
Polk rose from virtual obscurity to win the presidential election of Polk and his party campaigned on promises of westward expansion, with eyes toward Texas, Oregon, and California. In the final days of his presidency, Tyler at last extended an official offer to Texas on March 3, The republic accepted on July 4, becoming the twenty-eighth state.
Mexico drew the southwestern border of Texas at the Nueces River, but Texans claimed that the border lay roughly miles further west at the Rio Grande. Neither claim was realistic since the sparsely populated area, known as the Nueces strip, was in fact controlled by Native Americans.
The mission was an empty gesture, designed largely to pacify those in Washington who insisted on diplomacy before war.
Predictably, officials in Mexico City refused to receive Slidell. In preparation for the assumed failure of the negotiations, Polk preemptively sent a 4, man army under General Zachary Taylor to Corpus Christi, Texas, just northeast of the Nueces River. The President hoped that this show of force would push the lands of California onto the bargaining table as well. Unfortunately, he badly misread the situation. After losing Texas, the Mexican public strongly opposed surrendering any more ground to the United States.
Popular opinion left the shaky government in Mexico City without room to negotiate. It took two weeks for the news to reach Washington.
Polk sent a message to Congress on May 11 that summed up the assumptions and intentions of the United States. Instead of this, however, we have been exerting our best efforts to propitiate her good will. Upon the pretext that Texas, a nation as independent as herself, thought proper to unite its destinies with our own, she has affected to believe that we have severed her rightful territory, and in official proclamations and manifestoes has repeatedly threatened to make war upon us for the purpose of reconquering Texas.
In the meantime we have tried every effort at reconciliation. The cup of forbearance had been exhausted even before the recent information from the frontier of the Del Norte. But now, after reiterated menaces, Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are now at war.
Edward Walker, The cagey Polk knew that since hostilities already existed, political dissent would be dangerous — a vote against war became a vote against supporting American soldiers under fire. Congress passed a declaration of war on May Upon declaring war inCongress issued a call for 50, volunteer soldiers.
Spurred by promises of adventure and conquest abroad, thousands of eager men flocked to assembly points across the country. In the early fall ofthe U. In the United States, the war had been controversial from the beginning. Embedded journalists sent back detailed reports from the front lines, and a divided press viciously debated the news. Volunteers found that war was not as they expected.
Disease killed seven times as many American soldiers as combat. Peace finally came on February 2, with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Wikimedia Commons The new American Southwest attracted a diverse group of entrepreneurs and settlers to the commercial towns of New Mexico, the fertile lands of eastern Texas, and the famed gold deposits of California, and the Rocky Mountains. The Gadsden Purchase of further added to American gains north of Mexico.
Philip, however, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest. The new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was especially unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbeys. After the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy.
Philip delayed his response, and in this interval the opposition to his religious policies gained more widespread support. Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October In response, a group of members of the lesser nobility, among whom were Louis of Nassaua younger brother of Orange, and the brothers John and Philip of St. Aldegondeprepared a petition for Philip that sought the abolition of the Inquisition.
This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about nobles, both Catholic and Protestant, and was presented to Margaret on 5 April Impressed by the massive support for the compromise, she suspended the placards, awaiting Philip's final ruling. Insurrection, repression and invasion — [ edit ] Iconoclastic Fury of by Dirk van Delen Calvinists were an important component of the iconoclastic fury Dutch: Beeldenstorm across the Netherlands.
Margaret feared insurrection and made further concessions to the Calvinists, such as designating certain churches for Calvinist worship. Some provincial governors took decisive action to quell the disturbances. Aldegonde were defeated by a royalist army and all rebels summarily executed. In AprilMargaret reported to Philip that order had been restored. Alba established the Council of Troubles soon to be nicknamed the Blood Council on 5 Septemberwhich conducted a campaign of repression of suspected heretics and people guilty of insurrection.
Many high-ranking officials were arrested on various pretexts, among them the Counts of Egmont and Horne who were executed for treason. Of the 9, accused, about 1, were executed, and many fled into exile, including William of Orange. Louis of Nassau crossed into Groningen from East Friesland and defeated a small royalist force at Heiligerlee on 23 May Two months after, the Dutch rebels were smashed at the Battle of Jemmingen. Shortly thereafter, a Sea Beggars squadron defeated a royalist fleet in a naval battle on the Ems.
Orange marched into Brabantbut with money running out he could not maintain his mercenary army and had to retreat. Sea Beggars expelled from England captured the city on 1 April Leiden declared itself for Orange in a spontaneous revolt. The States of Holland started to convene in the rebel city of Dordrecht,  and by 18 July, only the important cities of Amsterdam and Schoonhoven openly supported the Crown.
Rotterdam went to the rebels soon after the first meetings in Dordrecht. Delft remained neutral for the time being. In Friesland rebels had seized several cities. Orange marched to Mons for support, but was forced to withdraw through Mechelenwhere he left a garrison. Alba had troops sack Mechelen, after which many cities hastened to pledge renewed loyalty to Alba.
Fadrique started his campaign by sacking the fortress city of Zutphen in Gelderland. Hundreds of citizens perished and many rebellious cities in Gelderland, Overijssel and Friesland yielded.
In the Battle on the Zuiderzee on 11 Octobera Sea Beggar squadron defeated the royalist fleet, thus placing the Zuiderzee under rebel control. The Battle of Borsele and the Battle of Reimerswaal established naval superiority for the rebels in Zeeland, and led to the fall of Middelburg in Spanish troops meanwhile defeated a mercenary force led by Orange's brothers Louis and Henry of Nassau-Dillenburg in the Mookerheyde.
In the summer ofRequesens ordered Cristobal de Mondragon to attack the Zeeland city of Zierikzeewhich surrendered on 2 July ; however, the Spanish troops mutinied and left Zierikzee. Philip had not been able to pay his troops for two years. All agreed that the Spanish troops should be withdrawn. There was also agreement on the suspension of the placards against heresy and freedom of conscience. The Pacification of Ghent was signed after the Spanish mutineers went on a murderous rampage in the city of Antwerp on 4 November.
The Spanish troops were withdrawn. Juan broke with the States-General in July, and fled to the safety of the citadel of Namur. Parma routed the States-General's troops in the Battle of Gembloux on 31 Januaryallowing royalist forces to advance to Leuven. New troops raised by the States General with support of Elizabeth of England defeated the Spanish armies at the Rijmenam.
The treaty is often called the "constitution" of the Dutch Republic, providing an explicit framework for the budding Confederation. Secession and reconquest — [ edit ] Catholic Walloon provinces signed their own defensive Union of Arras on 6 January Grievances of the conservative Catholics against Spain were satisfied and they could make a separate peace in the form of the Treaty of Arras in Mayin which they renewed their allegiance to Philip.
They would far prefer a broader based union, still based on the Pacification and the "religious peace", which both the unions of Utrecht and Arras implicitly rejected. However, by the time of the Treaty of Arras it was clear that the split had hardened, and Orange signed the Union of Utrecht on 3 May while encouraging the Flemish and Brabant cities in Protestant hands to also join the Union.
As both sides insisted on mutually exclusive demands these peace talks only served to make the irreconcilability of both parties obvious; there appeared to be no more room for the people who favoured the middle ground, like Count Rennenberg. Rennenberg, a Catholic, now made up his mind to go over to Spain. In March he called for the provinces in his remit to rise against the "tyranny" of Holland and the Protestants.
However, this only served to unleash an anti-Catholic backlash in Friesland and Overijssel. The States of Overijssel were finally convinced to adhere to the Union of Utrecht. Nevertheless, Rennenberg's "treason" posed a severe strategic threat for the Union, especially after Parma sent him reinforcements in June. He managed to capture most of Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel in the next months.
Parma seized Kortrijk in February Anjou arrived in Antwerp in Januarywhere he took an oath to in effect govern as a "constitutional monarch", and was acclaimed by the States-General as Protector of the Netherlands. The Act intensified the propaganda war between both sides, as it took the form of a manifest, setting out the principles of the Revolt, just as Orange's Apologie in answer to Philip's ban of Juneoutlawing him, had done.
Both documents are redolent of resistance theories that were also disseminated by the Huguenot Monarchomachs. As such they alienated yet another group of moderates.