Vladimir Putin’s pyramid of rule: Who really governs Russia? - cypenv.info
In , Putin shocked reporters when he criticized unruly oligarchs, saying, Putin also leveraged powerful symbols—such as a new national such as opponents of same-sex marriage, Putin has positioned Russia as an. The U.S. published a sweeping list of Kremlin oligarchs and officials late Monday, some with close ties to Russian President Vladimir Putin. Putin was relatively unknown outside of Russia when President Boris the deal null and void because he had been forced to sign under duress. . institutions in relation to oligarchical state ownership of the economy (the.
Why Russian Oligarchs Remain Loyal to Putin (Op-ed)
Russian oligarchs generally fall into several distinct subgroups. These include Gennady Timchenko, whose net worth as of Nov. A second group arrives from the security sector e. Some of these men are not personally friendly with Putin but capitalize on networks within resurgent intelligence agencies. Understanding how these oligarchs built their wealth goes a long way in predicting their future loyalty to Putin.
They may be tiring of the uncertainty surrounding their property rights and have an incentive to demand different political institutions to protect their assets.
Coaxing these groups to remain loyal requires the strategic use of rewards and repression. Cultivating loyalty through money and popularity First, the Russian government has spent incredible resources to directly compensate oligarchs for their financial losses.
All the Kremlin's Men: Oligarchs want to be confident that their government is still able to perform at a high level in response to crises. Otherwise, elites sense a sinking ship and begin to flee. The annexation of Crimea and, to a lesser extent, military adventurism in Ukraine and Syria successfully rallied the Russian populace around the flag, while tight control over domestic media has sustained the narrative that the Putin administration is effectively returning Russia to great power status.
The government has taken steps to reassure oligarchs that the country is still in capable hands. Maintaining support from elites requires learning, adapting and improving government performance over time. First, remember no oligarch wants to defect alone. He already declared the withdrawal of Russian troops from Syria whatever this will actually mean and started negotiations for placing UN peacekeepers in the war-torn Donbass region of Ukraine and for prisoner exchanges with Kiev.
In recent months, there also haven't been any new, known cases of Kremlin hacker attacks, and the troll factors seem to have quieted down. It seemed he actually avoided grand declarations which he usually makes at such events; there was not a trace of the aggressive rhetoric he used to maintain until recently. In any case, this perceived retreat might be more tactical than strategic.
Without an enemy in the West, Putin would lose a lot of his domestic legitimacy. This doesn't mean that the Russian people want a confrontation; on the contrary - a recent survey shows that 75 percent think that relations with the US and other Western countries should be improved. There is no contradiction here: Putin loves to talk about how he wants to improve relations, but the West is afraid of Russia's growing strength and is trying to preclude such attempts.
The worsening of the economic situation in Russia was compensated for by the intensification of propaganda: TV ratings are falling but Putin doesn't have a choice - amid low oil prices, he would find it very difficult to mobilise his base without an external "enemy". This means that Putin will be stepping back only as far as the West forces him to, and not a step more. He is no longer on the offensive and is now laying low and watching.
Viktor Yanukovych in February The protests began in November when Yanukovych scuttled a treaty that would have strengthened ties between Ukraine and the European Union. Instead, he sought to steer the country into the proposed Eurasian Economic Union with Russia. After a bloody crackdown in Kiev left scores dead and hundreds wounded, Yanukovych fled to Russia. The Putin administration, which did not recognize the acting government that had replaced Yanukovych, moved to capitalize on the situation.
On February 28 armed men whose uniforms lacked visible insignia took control of key sites in the Ukrainian autonomous republic of Crimea.
Long the headquarters of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, the Crimean Peninsula was home to a predominantly Russian population, and the movement of Russian troops into the region was not opposed.
By March 3 a pro-Russian prime minister had been installed at the head of the regional parliament, and Russia had achieved de facto military control of Crimea. On March 16 a referendum was held in Crimea, and 97 percent of voters stated a preference for leaving Ukraine and joining Russia.
On March 18 Putin and members of the Crimean parliament signed a treaty that transferred control of the peninsula to Russia. This treaty was ratified by the upper and lower houses of the Russian parliament and signed into law by Putin on March In early April heavily armed pro-Russian gunmen occupied government buildings throughout southeastern Ukraine and proclaimed the independence of the regions of Donetsk and Luhansk.
As in Crimea, the separatist groups in both regions held referenda on the matter, but the results had little practical effect. Despite early reversals, the Ukrainian army began reclaiming rebel-held territory as separatist groups fielded increasingly sophisticated heavy weapons, including tanks and air-defense systems. Pro-Russian separatists were implicated in the shooting down of the aircraft, and the U.
Russia, denying any connection to the rebels, retaliated with a wide-ranging ban on Western food imports. Although Russia continued to publicly deny any role in the conflict, Ukrainian military forces captured numerous Russian troops inside Ukraine.
Vladimir Putin: a tyrant at home, a friend of tyrants abroad
On August 28 Ukrainian Pres. Petro Poroshenko stated that Russian forces had entered Ukraine, and NATO estimated that at least 1, Russian troops were actively engaged in operations inside Ukraine. Putin responded by publicly declaring his support for the separatists but reiterated the claim that Russia was not a participant in the hostilities.
On September 5 Putin and Poroshenko met in Minsk, Belarusand agreed to a cease-fire plan that pledged to de-escalate the fighting and limit the use of heavy weapons in civilian areas. The agreement was soon violated by both sides, however, and, in spite of a drawdown of Russian forces near the Ukrainian border, ample evidence remained of Russian intervention in the conflict. Consolidation of power, Syria, and campaign against the West On the domestic front, Putin attempted to expand his already extensive control of the media.
The Kremlin responded to the events in Ukraine by launching a widely successful propaganda campaign that used anti-Western rhetoric to stoke Russian patriotism. In Augustregulations entered into effect that required bloggers with more than 3, daily readers to register as media outlets. In addition, anonymous blogging was prohibited, and Internet service providers were required to maintain a record of user data that could be accessed by government authorities.
Putin signed a bill in October that restricted foreign ownership of Russian media assets to 20 percent, drastically limiting outside access to the Russian market. In December anticorruption activist Aleksey Navalny received a three-and-a-half-year suspended sentence on fraud charges. His brother, Olegwas imprisoned for three and a half years for the same offense. The prosecutions were widely seen as politically motivated. Western sanctions and plunging oil prices combined to send the Russian economy into recession in early In an attempt to shore up a plummeting ruble in Decemberthe Russian central bank spent billions of dollars from its foreign currency reserves and hiked its key interest rate to 17 percent.
On February 27,Boris Nemtsovan opposition leader who had spoken out against the Russian military campaign in Ukraine, was assassinated near the Kremlin.
Russia - The Putin presidency | cypenv.info
Nemtsov was just one of a growing number of Putin critics to be silenced, either by foul play or by imprisonment. Bashar al-Assada move that helped preserve a regime that was on the verge of collapse. A cyberattack that was attributed to Russian security services left hundreds of thousands of Ukrainians without electricity in December The incident marked the first time that a power grid had been taken offline by a hacking attackand an even more sophisticated attack plunged Kiev into darkness almost exactly one year later.
Nemtsov, BorisFlowers, condolence messages, and a memorial photograph marking the spot in Moscow's Red Square where Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov was assassinated on February 27, Russian fighter jets routinely violated NATO airspace in the Baltic inand nuclear-capable missile systems were deployed to the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad.
In the months prior to the U.