Comparison of the newly developed countries and Africa. • Science and The role of basic science in the development of science and technology. • Promotion of . As part of the continuing relationship between the American physicists and. 3 Measuring science, technology, and innovation . The link that modern science established between theory and practice creates a power to act inseparable. Science and technology are key drivers to development, because to knowledge and markets, changing the relationship between citizens and.
Politics and modern science and technology Although Japan has achieved technological self-reliance, it is not playing the lead role in all areas of technological development, and there should be no reason to expect that it should. It is sufficient for Japan to have appropriate areas in which it may contribute to the rest of the world, and any attempt to monopolize the potentials of development in technology would be dangerous. Especially in view of the military potential of the most advanced sciences and technologies, it is important that each country have some share in global science and technology activities, with no one country dominating.
To this end, establishing a world-wide science and technology information network would make an important contribution. The institutionalization of science and technology has been occurring since World War I, and both in developed and in developing countries, government expenditures to promote science and technology have grown tremendously.
In Japan, however, government involvement and investment have been extremely small, the leading role in research and development having been played by private enterprises. In other words, individual enterprises own the most advanced technologies. This is one reason why Japanese R.
Part 1: Science, technology, and development
This reflects the difference between countries that have been engaged in developing science and technology mainly for military purposes - for which only high efficiency and quality have been sought and the possible general national economic benefits of them disregarded - and Japan, which has specialized in applying the theoretical achievements of modern science and technology for improving people's lives-in other words, for commercial purposes.
It is totally unreasonable to have people dying from starvation in an age when man can go to the moon. Everyone should be assured of the right to oppose the development of science and technology that has been inseparably connected with such political insanity.
The utilization of the most advanced technology for people's day-to-day living should be developed more positively in each country. Bolder experiments with certain conditions should be attempted in developing countries. However, because industrialization and the development of science and technology involve the principle of private economy, they tend to be accompanied by such negative consequences as those discussed in the section on environmental pollution.
Consideration for human dignity and human rights by scientists, engineers, and industrialists must be constantly promoted. As one scientist has described it, it is easy to understand that the most advanced areas related to military technology are the areas containing the most attractive challenges for scientists and engineers. It is most unpleasant, however, to see them exchanging, as an equal trade, the existence of mankind for personal gain.
In this regard, the charter promulgated by the Science Council of Japan in is extremely promising. The council declared three principles for atomic energy research: The charter declares that "science must aim only at enriching the lives of mankind," and "in order to ensure the sound development of science and to promote its useful application," scientists must: This welcome declaration was an achievement encouraged by recommendations of the Occupation forces intended to fundamentally reform the Japanese system of research and education after Yuasa Just as the Japanese could not prosecute the war criminals on their own initiative, the internal circumstances of latecomer Japan were such that, unless there was pressure from the outside, it was difficult for people to gain the opportunity for change.
What is to be noted is that inherent elements had matured so that Japan could respond to pressure from the outside. Under the Meiji state, the potential for reform in the worlds of science and technology had been limited.
Since the Tokugawa shogunate, two historical veins had intersected in Japan, distinguished according to how the idea of "Japanese spirit and Western technology" was used.
In one, the idea was used to represent progress, while in the other, it was used to disparage Western technology as merely a tool borne of a culturally and spiritually impoverished world, and, at the same time, to promote a reactionary, exclusive nationalism. Even as long ago as the ninth century, when Japan was actively importing Chinese culture and technology, there were those in Japan advocating "Chinese technology, Japanese spirit" Yuasa And again, years after the introduction of the gun and of Christianity into Japan, the current slogan was "Japanese spirit and Western technology" Yuasa The defeat of China in the Opium War was a serious shock not only to scholars of Western learning but to everyone, leading to the publication of such arguments for coastal defence as Kaikoku shidan, a work by Hayashi Shibei.
The defeat of China also triggered a shift in the Japanese scholarly community away from the Chinese model, as represented by the T'ien-kung k'ai-wu, a seventeenth-century encyclopaedia of technological science by Sung Ying-hsing, to Western science and technology.
However, with the establishment and stabilization of Meiji state power, the nature of the idea began to change, and an abusive manipulation of technology began.
The tendency was most marked among military officers and conservative politicians, and there was little public resistance. According to Yuasait was some 50 years before anyone appeared to object publicly and persuasively to the contempt of science and technology that "Japanese spirit and Western technology" was being made to represent. InTanakadate Aikitsu a science professor at the University of Tokyo gave an address to the House of Peers which was led by ultra-nationalists and Shintoists under the little, "The State of Aircraft Research and Development," in which he campaigned for the establishment of an institute of aviation: In my understanding, you regard Western civilization as a materialistic.
Perhaps the strongest message to emerge from dialogues induced by the Johannesburg Summit was that the research community needs to complement its historic role in identifying problems of sustainability with a greater willingness to join with the development and other communities to work on practical solutions to those problems.
A more systematic study of internationally sanctioned goals and targets for a sustainability transition, together with an evaluation of the state of reporting and assessment on progress in attaining those goals, is provided by Parris and Kates in their contribution to this Special Feature As important as this international consensus on goals and targets may be for targeting problem-driven research in support of a sustainability transition, however, it is not sufficient.
Where such systems exist, the production of usable, place-based knowledge for promoting sustainability has been impressive indeed.
Indeed, pursuit of practical solutions to the pressing challenges of sustainability has driven the field to tackle an array of fundamental questions.
The Friibergh Workshop on Sustainability Science 5 identified a half-dozen such core conceptual questions that have been further developed through the virtual Forum on Science and Technology for Sustainability 22 and are beginning to appear in the context of emerging agendas in other more established fields, such as global environmental change Examples of the new sorts of research now beginning to emerge on several of those core questions are reported elsewhere in this Special Feature: And a number of groups are calling for reexamination of national and international social account measures to include sustainability considerations.
Activities to advance the sustainability science program are moving forward on a number of fronts and at scales from the global to the local. One of the more up-to-date lists of programs and projects is maintained on the Forum on Science and Technology for Sustainability As an indication of the range of activities underway internationally, the International Council for Science, Third World Academy of Sciences, Initiative on Science and Technology for Sustainability, and other organizations have formed a Consortium for promoting a coordinated international program of research, capacity building, and applications.
First used by Whewell inthe term "scientist" came to replace "natural philosopher" or "savant," first in the English-speaking countries, a century later elsewhere. Indeed, the language and activities of science had become incomprehensible to anyone who had not had the appropriate training.
New specialisms, disciplines, and subdisciplines proliferated and generated their own networks of institutions, journals, and meetings. The number of researchers grew enormously: As in any profession, the growth in numbers led to fierce competition for recognition and hence resources and survival.
James Watson gives a very personal and vivid account of the discovery of the genetic code in The Double Helix , describing the ruthless behaviour often required to be recognized as one of the top research teams in the world and to achieve the ultimate accolade, the Nobel Prize.
The American catch-phrase, "publish or perish," is another example of the distortion of the scientific ethic brought about by competition within a worldwide scientific community, where the "credit" attached to results produced and published to gain fame also determines the financial "credit" that all research programmes require to survive.
Politics and modern science and technology
The process of professionalization implies membership in a community, with its own rules and initiation rites and tests for entry and continued acceptance. The scientific community in fact has a double role: It is responsible for disseminating the results of work in progress, as well as publicizing and promoting science, both within its own ranks and outside, to decision makers and the general public.
It also looks after scholarly exchanges, sanctions qualifications and research projects, sees to the promotion of researchers and honours them with prizes and grants. In institutional terms, these functions are carried out by the Academies, learned societies, "peer review committees," boards of examiners, and juries.
The basic qualification for the researcher is the doctorate, which originated in Germany in the mid-nineteenth century and is now the standard entry requirement for the profession.
In basic research, unlike technological research, scientists are expected to share their results freely with the rest of the scientific community.
Progress occurs through and depends on publishing results and on cooperation that by definition transcends national and ideological boundaries: In return, scientists expect to receive additional resources in order to continue their work, perhaps leading to further and more substantial recognition. There are indeed certain similarities with the process of canonization by the Church, except that the candidates are alive and the cursus of honours publication in prestigious journals, membership of learned societies, national and international prizes, etc.
Kuhn  has shown that professionalization in the natural sciences is inseparable from this regulatory role of the scientific community. If science is able to advance, it is precisely because the learning process depends on the publication of current research efforts in a given field. A scientific revolution occurs when a new "paradigm" is adopted, obliging the community to throw away the books and articles produced on the basis of the previous paradigm.
There is no equivalent in scientific education of the art museum or the library of classics. Whereas in the arts or social sciences one cannot ignore the work of the great names of the past - the writings of Plato or Weber are still a fundamental element of discussions in philosophy or sociology - a modern student of physics is not required to read Newton, Faraday, or Maxwell. Finally, the process of professionalization not only leads to recognition of status in the abstract, but also perhaps above all involves socially sanctioned rewards in terms of income and resources directly linked to the activity of research.
As Ben-David  has pointed out, The requirement of a Ph. But its principal effect was to create a professional role that implied a certain ethos on the part of the scientist as well as his employer. The ethos demanded that those who received the Ph. The employer, by employing a person with a Ph. In Europe in the interwar period, scientists had great difficulties in convincing governments to recognize their role as researchers.
In fact, research activities still appeared there to be an end in themselves - a calling rather than a productive function - in the context of a university culture, insulated by its institutions and context from community problems and mundane affairs; they were kept on the fringe of university functions and remained there for such a long time that Jean Perrin, Nobel prizewinner in physics, could say, as late asthat "the use of university grants for scientific research is an irregularity to which the authorities are prepared to turn a blind eye" .
It was only after the Second World War that the function of scientists devoting themselves full time to research came to be fully recognized in most of the capitalist industrialized countries, with negotiable salaries. In the United States, this negotiation takes place on the basis of individual contracts, whereas in countries such as France, it is part of the standard negotiations with trade unions and professional organizations relating to conditions in the public service. Whatever the system, however, research has joined the general category of professions that provide their members with their livelihood.
This stage would probably not have been reached as fast or on the scale that it has without the stimuli of developments in industry and of deliberate policies for science and technology launched after the Second World War. The industrialization of science The industrialization of science should not be confused with industrial research.
Science & Technology - Introduction
The latter dates back to the mid-nineteenth century and merely brings together the laboratory and the factory. Industrialization means the development of big equipment and the application of industrial management methods to scientific activities themselves.
This stage of "big science"  occurred only between the world wars and increased rapidly after