Turkey says will not cut off trade ties to Iran at behest of others | Reuters
Turkey hosts critical summit on Syria war with Russia, Iran Two countries support rival camps in Syrian war but united in opposing Kurdish independence. The gradual improvement in Iran-Turkey relations that began with Erdogan's rise generate tension between Turkey and the West, especially the United States. Over the centuries, the relationship between Turkey and Iran has. ① . war against Iraq and completely cut off the relations with the United. States and Israel.
As Turkey increasingly embraces its Middle Eastern rootsin addition to the way in which the US Administration is treating both nationsit only encourages Iran and Turkey in the very rejection of Westernization domestically. This European vision of Turkey established by the founder of the modern state often led Turkey to turn to Europe for security, economic, and political alliances. In the last several years, however, Turkey has increasingly sought closer ties with and has involved itself in issues specific to the Middle East, such as hosting the Organization of the Islamic Corporation for a rally in support for Palestinians.
Starting in when the AKP came to powerit has increasingly been turning towards its Muslim neighbors to develop closer relations with Syria, Iran and Iraq. After such shifts, the question of playing the geopolitical game and choosing a side in the Iran-Saudi proxy war became a decision with which Turkey was willing to engage. With this interest in developing partnerships, Turkey has shown it is also looking to position itself as an economic and security partner in other regions.
This is most evident with regards to China through a change in policies in August when Turkey decided to shift its stance on the status of Uighur Turks. Some Uighur Turks were crossing into Syria with fake Turkish documents and supporting the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, an organization that is now on the terror list of both countries.
With regards to their overarching strategies and goals in the region, Iran and Turkey have some significant overlapping interests.
Uneasy Neighbors: Turkish-Iranian Relations Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution
For example, they have critical interests on the Kurdish question, with a desire to suppress any possibility for self-determination and state formation on either of their territories, as well as in Iraq and Syria. Further, their relationship touches on other issues such as the Syrian Civil War and their security interests more generally.
Because they are both outsiders to the traditional Arab partnerships usually found across the region, both countries see an opportunity to join forces and use their collective influence to help capitalize on the realities of the region today.IRAN VS TURKEY - Military Power Comparison 2017
Now that tensions have arisen between Iran and Russia regarding who will have the most influence and be the central beneficiary for their security and financial support for Asssad, Turkey can potentially become a necessary partner to help Iran reach its ambitions there. Turkey has been invested in the Syrian civil war for several years now, attempting to negotiate a settlement.
They also have their own interests in becoming involved in the country during its period of reconstruction. On the new partnership: It is worth noting that Iran and Turkey were two of the few nations that stood against the Saudi-led campaign against Qatar, and responded to help Qatar during the summer.
Turkey deployed troops to Qatar, some say for reassurance. Iran sent several planes stocked with a range of food to aid it in the early days of the crisis, also giving Qatar the liberty to use its airspace. This is an early example of Iran-Turkey acting in unison, as this budding partnership begins to form.
The occasion was remarkable because it was the first time in which such a senior-level Iranian military officer visited Turkey in 38 years.
The very latest official visit was even bolder, with Turkish President Recip Tayyip Erdogan visiting Tehran, with the purpose of discussing bilateral cooperation and deepening economic ties. In recent decades, Turkey has been heavily focused on meeting European standards towards its bid to enter the European Union, shifting its attention away from the Middle East's concerns.
Furthermore, the German government said it would seek to prevent the modernization of the Customs Union between the two countries, lest it give Turkey the wrong impression regarding its position in the European Union. As a result, with this hope waning, Turkey now looks east to seek new, dependable and understanding allies which will offer leverage in the region to expand its reach of influence. Syria is just one such example of these consequences. As Western states have turned their support towards groups Turkey identifies as enemies or challengers to their government, Turkey shifted from supporting Assad, to launching its own offensives within the Syrian territory, which this paper will discuss later in greater detail.
Turkey observes that its so-called allies in Europe are turning against itnot helping the country manage the resulting risks and challenges to its own security apparatus.
- Iran–Turkey relations
- Turkey says will not cut off trade ties to Iran at behest of others
This obligates Turkey to seek other partners in the region sharing similar interests, even though this puts Turkey at odds with the very partners it views as having turned against it. This development allowed Turkey to emerge as a stakeholder in the Syrian Civil War through the Astana Processbecoming involved with Russia and Iran on the future of Syria, despite the diverse agendas each country may have on the subject.
Further to this collaboration, tensions are rising and relations decaying between the US and Turkey. In Octoberan American Pastor named Andrew Brunson found himself charged with multiple counts of terrorism and imprisoned in Turkey, as a part of a nation-wide crackdown as a result of the failed coup.
He was arrested with no charges against him for over one year. In July at his trial the Turkish courts refused to release Brunson from custody, setting another trial date to 12 October The extent to which this event will impact and strain US-Turkey relations is unclear, but the responses have been grandiose.
In June, Congress blocked the sale of fighter jets to Turkey because of its regional ties and warming of relations with Russia. The US did eventually impose sanctions and the Lira has suffered greatly as a result. Both of these events further push Turkey closer to Iran. The Kurdish question serves as an especially strong and obvious issue area for Iran and Turkey to become closer strategic security partners.
Iran shares a similar concern, with 10 to 12 million Kurds within its borders, and the history of the once short-lived Kurdish state within its territory.
This shared experience and concern can be the launch pad to a strong foundation of security coordination between the two nations. The Kurdish people are the largest stateless population in the world today. Estimated at millionthey are spread over six countries in the Middle East, but have a telling history in Iraq and Turkey.
At the end of WWI, the Kurds were promised partial autonomy in the Iraqi territory by the French, though seemingly not outright self determination. Once the Treaty of Lausanne was signeddeclaring the exact borders of the modern Turkish state, Kurds within the new territory became incapable of demanding the right to self-determination in those lands. As a result, the Allies ended their campaign for Kurdish independence. In the modern state of Turkey, the first Kurdish rebellion took place inshortly after Ataturk established a secular, Turkish government.
Over the years, expressions of Kurdish origins have been oppressed by the government, including the spoken language and apparel. Inthe government even deemed it a terrorist act to establish Kurdish state. The Turkish government has continued its oppression, which led to the insurgent branch of the PKK in This insurgent group has pillaged villages, attacked groups, murdered thousands, resulting in more oppression on the Kurdish population.
Over the years, there have been sporadic moments of insurgency, but has never resulted in a large movement or a strengthening of the Iranian Kurdish community. The Kurds in Iran have not had as many outward expressions of nationalism, due to the strength of the Iranian government and its steadfast interruption of any uprisings over the years. Turkey had a history of security ties with Iraqi Kurdistan. Inthere were 18 Turkish military bases in the autonomous region, with over soldiers, officers and intelligence staff working there.
This was to the dismay of many at the time, including Iraqi members of parliament and foreign minister. Turkey hoped to have a close relationship with officials in the region as a strategic move towards fighting the militia wing of the PKK on their territory, which the Kurdistan Regional Government KRG also opposes.
This is especially important as it relates to Iraq after Daesh. The partnership between Turkey and Kurdistan will face challenges when the semi-autonomous Kurdistan Regional Government KRG in northern Iraq announced in early September that it would hold a referendum on whether its residents will declare Iraqi-Kurdish independence on 25 September The KRG stated that if the vote was successful, however, it would not result in immediate secession.
Iran–Turkey relations - Wikipedia
These ambitions presented a valid concern for many states in the region, considering that the territory Kurds claim as proper Kurdistan covers Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Syria and the threat a successful vote can pose on them all. Upon the successful vote, none of the governments from these countries recognized the vote, nor the right for a Kurdish state.
Immediately following, all feared this would embolden Kurds within their borders to establish their own autonomous regions and even consider seeking statehood, effectively threatening their territorial integrity. For example, the Kurdish administration in northern Syria decided in July to hold elections for local and regional postsindicating its interest in becoming more autonomous. They have officially stated that the region is not seeking autonomy from Damascus, however. The border between Turkey and Iran is one of the oldest in the world and has stayed more or less the same since the Battle of Chaldiran inand the Treaty of Zuhab.
The treaty thus formalised a centuries-old status quo. On the same day, the countries signed a new Treaty of Friendship, as well as a Treaty of Conciliation, Judicial Settlement and Arbitration. Several regions in Turkey were visited and attempts at close friendship and cooperation between the two leaders were made. Reza Shah Pahlavi was reportedly impressed by the republic's modernization reforms and he saw this as an example for his own country. This treaty would become known as the Treaty of Saadabad.
The purpose of this agreement was to ensure security and peace in the Middle East. A period of coldness passed after the Iranian Revolution which caused major changes in Iran and the Middle Eastern status quo.
Today Iran and Turkey closely cooperate in a wide variety of fields that range from fighting terrorismdrug traffickingand promoting stability in Iraq and Central Asia. Turkey is the same distance from both of them. What has the international community said against Israel so far? Is this the superiority of law or the law of superiors? However, Turkey's neutral stance with regards to the disputes between Israel and Iran has secured the maintenance of friendly bilateral relations.
Turkey's relations with Israel have deteriorated after the Gaza War —09the Gaza flotilla raid and the Israel—Gaza conflict.