Trompenaars' model of national culture differences - Wikipedia
people solves problems and reconciles dilemmas” (Trompenaars there are five possible criteria of describing a value orientation: (1) human nature main five concern the first of their three criteria (relationships with other. Identify four problems that critics have identified with Hofstede's theory. Do you think it What is the relationship between human beings and the natural world?. answers to fundamental problems related to human nature and human . In relation to Hofstede's findings, Adler has difficulties to differentiate between values.
This contrasts with Hofstede's earlier research, which found these countries to be collectivist, and shows the dynamic and complex nature of culture. Emotional A neutral culture is a culture in which emotions are held in check whereas an emotional culture is a culture in which emotions are expressed openly and naturally. Neutral cultures that come rapidly to mind are those of the Japanese and British.
In emotional cultures, people often smile, talk loudly when excited, and greet each other with enthusiasm. So, when people from neutral culture are doing business in an emotional culture they should be ready for a potentially animated and boisterous meeting and should try to respond warmly. As for those from an emotional culture doing business in a neutral culture, they should not be put off by a lack of emotion. Diffuse A specific culture is one in which individuals have a large public space they readily share with others and small private space guard closely and share with only close friends and associates.
A diffuse culture is one in which public space and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully, because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well.
It looks at how separate a culture keeps their personal and public lives. Fred Luthans and Jonathan Doh give the following example which explains this: An example of these specific and diffuse cultural dimensions is provided by the United States and Germany. When golfing, Bob might just be one of the guys, even to a golf partner who happens to be a graduate student in his department.
By unpredictable circumstances, representatives of collective cultures do not decide on the post but they submit the decision to the organization. Neutral versus emotional culture Members of neutral cultures do not reveal what they think or feel.
Emotions are hidden and suppressed however they are from time to time unexpectedly expressed. They admire cold and rational behaviour, their behaviour is usually monotonous.
Taboos are considered to be for them distinct face play, gesticulation or other outstanding expressions. Members of emotional cultures on the other hand reveal their thoughts and feeling both verbally and nonverbally.MAN
They give vent to their tension and emotions are naturally and vehemently expressed. They admire expressing feelings and their expression is usually dramatic. Specific versus cultures Members of specific cultures are usually straight, facty and purpose. Their behaviour is noted for accuracy, curtness, certainty and transparency. Moral principles valid in negotiation are determined beforehand. Managers separate work relation from other types of relations.
Chapter 6: Beliefs, Values, and Cultural Universals – Speaking of Culture
Managing of the subordinates is characteristic with accurate and detailed instructions. Managements are the realization of goals and fulfilling of standards.
They appear to be elusive and double-faced. Morale is for them highly situational; morale aspects of behaviour depend on people and context. Life is regarded as a process of continual unfolding. Our purpose on earth, the people might say, is to become fully human. People are more likely to express the view that we are here to work hard and that human worth is measured by the sum of accomplishments. What is the ideal relationship between the individual and society?
Expressed another way, we can say the concern is about how a society is best organized. People in some societies think it most natural that a society be organized hierarchically.
Value Orientations Theory
They hold to the view that some people are born to lead and others to follow. Leaders, they feel, should make all the important decisions.
Other societies are best described as valuing collateral relationships.
In such societies, everyone has an important role to play in society; therefore, important decisions should be made by consensus. In still other societies, the individual is the primary unit of society. Researchers have found the framework useful in making sense of diverse cultures around the world. As Hill has observed, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck did not consider the theory to be complete. In fact, they originally proposed a sixth value orientation—Space: And Hill has proposed a number of additional questions that one might expect cultural groups to grapple with: