The thesis statement or claim of an argumentative essay should quizlet
In economics, "rational expectations" are model-consistent expectations, in that agents inside By application[show] To assume rational expectations is to assume that agents' expectations may The common sense is "rationality": therefore Muth called the argument "rational expectations". . Monetarism · New classical. Monetarists argue that the Fed reduces fluctuations in economic activity and the price level. . A production function is Correct Answer: b. the relationship between . Using Quizlet Sign Up Help Mobile Students Teachers About Quizlet Company Jobs Privacy Terms Contact Study Everywhere! Download the Android app. Monetarists argue that monetary policy is really more effective than fiscal .. A graph of the relationship between the rates of inflation and unemployment for a.
An example is the policy ineffectiveness proposition developed by Thomas Sargent and Neil Wallace. If the Federal Reserve attempts to lower unemployment through expansionary monetary policy economic agents will anticipate the effects of the change of policy and raise their expectations of future inflation accordingly.
This in turn will counteract the expansionary effect of the increased money supply. All that the government can do is raise the inflation rate, not employment. This is a distinctly New Classical outcome. During the s rational expectations appeared to have made previous macroeconomic theory largely obsolete, which culminated with the Lucas critique.
However, rational expectations theory has been widely adopted as a modelling assumption even outside of New Classical macroeconomics  thanks to the work of New Keynesians such as Stanley Fischer.
If agents do not or cannot form rational expectations or if prices are not completely flexible, discretional and completely anticipated economic policy actions can trigger real changes. In order to be able to compute expected values, individuals must know the true economic model, its parameters, and the nature of the stochastic processes that govern its evolution.
If these extreme assumptions are violated, individuals simply cannot form rational expectations  Testing empirically for rational expectations[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Monetarists argue that if there is an increase in aggregate demand, then workers demand higher nominal wages. When they receive higher nominal wages, they work longer hours because they feel real wages have increased.How to Use Quizlet
When they realise real wages are the same as last year, they change their price expectations, and no longer supply extra labour and the real output returns to its original level. Therefore, unemployment remains unchanged, but we have a higher inflation rate. Adaptive expectation monetarists argue there is only a short-term trade-off between unemployment and inflation.
Rational expectation monetarists argue there is no trade-off, even in the short term. The rational expectation model suggests that workers see an increase in AD as inflationary and so predict real wages will stay the same.
Phillips Curve | Economics Help
Summary of Monetarist v Keynesian view A monetarist would argue unemployment is a supply side phenomena. Monetarists argue using demand-side policies can only temporarily reduce unemployment by an ever-accelerating inflation rate.
Monetarists argue that unemployment is determined by the natural rate of unemployment Keynesians argue there can be demand deficient unemploymentand during a recession, demand-side policies can reduce unemployment in the long term with perhaps some inflation The Phillips Curve Breakdown Evidence from the s suggested the trade-off between unemployment and inflation had broken down. The s witnessed a rise in stagflation — rising unemployment and inflation. Monetarists argued that increasing the money supply just led to a wage inflation spiral and did not help to reduce unemployment.
They advocated reducing the money supply and achieving low inflation — any unemployment would just prove temporary. However, others argued there was still a trade-off — the Phillips curve had just shifted to the right giving a worse trade-off because of cost-push inflation.
Shift in Phillips Curve to the right the s In the early s, the trade-off seemed to improve.
Helped by low global inflation, unemployment in the UK fell without any rise in inflation. Some argued this period of stability had ended the boom and bust cycles with the classic trade-off between inflation and unemployment. This was due to the recession and falling oil prices. However, inthe UK experienced higher unemployment and higher inflation because of cost-push inflationary pressures.
This was another period of stagflation Conclusion on Phillips Curve If the economy is operating below full capacity, a significant increase in aggregate demand is likely to cause a reduction in unemployment and higher inflation. Most economists would agree that in the short term, there can be a trade-off between unemployment and inflation. However, there is a disagreement whether this policy is valid for the long-term.
Monetarists would tend to argue the trade-off will prove short-term, and we will just get inflation. Monetarists place greater stress on the supply side of the economy. However, Keynesians argue that demand deficient unemployment could persist in the long-term.
If there is a significant negative output gap, boosting AD could lead to lower unemployment and a modest increase in inflation. In a deep recession, this fall in unemployment will not just be temporary because there will be no crowding out. In an ideal wopolicymakersakers will aim for low inflation and low unemployment.
To achieve this, we need economic growth that is sustainable close to long-run trend rate and supply-side policies to reduce cost-push inflation and structural unemployment.