Australia's changing relationships with Britain and the US by Cat Ll on Prezi
Relations with Britain and the United States of America, Australia and World War II, History, Year 9, NSW. During World War II, Australia's relationship with Britain and the United States was changed dramatically. This happened through a number of events all leading. This means Australia must have a tight relationship with a country that does. For much of Australian history, that was the United Kingdom. The U.S. needed Australia when it fought the Japanese in the Pacific in World War II.
How did Australia's relationships with Britain and the United States change during World War II?
There was a view among many Germans that they had never been defeated in the First World War as the surrender they signed was not unconditional and that the Allied Powers had treated them harshly at the Peace of Versailles. The Great Depression brought about extreme hardship leading to support for the Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party whom openly advocated the expansion of German territory through military conquest.
Japan also started on a campaign of conquest with a view to creating an empire in Asia and the Pacific. Throughout the late s, Germany, Italy and Japan pursued their expansionary plans, initially assisted by an appeasement approach by Great Britain and France and an isolationist approach from the USA.
Australia moved quickly to support Great Britain and also declared war.
Australia–United Kingdom relations
This time, there was none of the enthusiasm and joy that had greeted the news of the outbreak of the First World War. A million Australians, both men and women, served in the Second World War —overseas. The Australian mainland came under direct attack for the first time, with Japanese aircraft bombing towns in north-west Australia and Japanese midget submarines attacking Sydney Harbour. Australians flew in the Battle of Britain in August and September The Australian Army was not engaged in combat untilwhen the 6th, 7th, and 9th Divisions joined operations in the Mediterranean and North Africa.
After being relieved at Tobruk, the 6th and 7th Divisions departed for the war against Japan.
Australia–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
The 9th Division remained to play an important role in the Allied victory at El Alamein in October before it also left for the Pacific. After expanding its territories throughout Korea and China, Japan sought to extend territory through south-east Asia but realised that would not be tenable to the United States — so Japan engineered an extremely successful pre-emptory strike on the US Naval Fleet stationed at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii, in December Japan followed up their success at Pearl Harbour a series of victories, resulting in the occupation of most of south-east Asia and large areas of the Pacific by the end of March Singapore fell in February, with the loss of an entire Australian division.
After the bombing of Darwin that same month, all RAN ships in the Mediterranean theatre, as well as the 6th and 7th Divisions, returned to defend Australia. In response to the heightened threat, the Australian government also expanded the army and air force and called for an overhaul of economic, domestic, and industrial policies to give the government special authority to mount a total war effort at home.
In Marchafter the defeat of the Netherlands East Indies, Japan's southward advance began to lose strength, easing fears of an imminent invasion of Australia.
Further relief came when the first AIF veterans of the Mediterranean campaigns began to come home, and when the United States assumed responsibility for the country's defence, providing reinforcements and equipment.
Further Allied victories against the Japanese followed in Australianness was embedded in their Britishness; the two were not in conflict. In celebrating Australia Day they were celebrating themselves and their peculiar Australian way.
Such celebrations could not be construed as indicating a desire to be rid of the monarchy or the empire. Moreover, Australians felt a great deal of solidarity with their British cousins. Consider the following quote: Australians know that our future is linked with Britain, not only by ties of race and kinship, but because of hard, practical reasons.
Australian Involvement In The Second World War
No, the speaker was not Robert Menzies but Ben Chifley in Witness the massively popular reception of the new monarch, Queen Elizabeth, when she visited Australia in The Queen and Prince Philip wave from the royal tram in InBritain was still taking Even in the s, a strong connection between Australia and Britain made a lot of sense. The old relationship between Australia and Britain was changing, and Australia was turning its political allegiances more to the US and its trade to Asia.
The shock of the post-war decline of the British Empire was also great for Australia. Cut adrift from empire, it had to refashion and remake itself. It most certainly continued to have a political, social and cultural heritage derived from Britain, but it was moving away and increasingly forming its own, separate identity.
- The Second World War
Trade ties were diminished and large numbers of immigrants from many parts of the world arrived, reshaping the country. The bonds of solidarity with Britain so obvious to Chifley in would only puzzle a young Australian in Again, like Britain, much of the history of Australia over the past 50 years has been an attempt to come to terms with the end of empire. Many solutions have been proposed, and tried, ranging from the new nationalism of the Whitlam years, to multiculturalism, to the idea that Australia is part of Asia.
Or even a mixture of all three.