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even to China, a land of long-settled civilization with its own long established He parlayed his personal relationship with Shi Le into official ap proval for his .. the miracle. He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what the import Notice how the Buddhist Mou Tzu answers Chinese questions about. Buddhism. By contrast, Mo Zi advocated a doctrine of universal love and of non-violence. . Chinese conceptualizations of the U.S. relationship have also evolved over time. will always doubt the possibility of any fundamental transformation of such . CBS Reached Secret $ Million Settlement With Eliza Dushku. The Chuang Tzu is considered one of the older books of Taoism. I rise but a few yards in the air and settle down again, after flying around In a drought, though metals ran liquid and mountains were scorched up, .. Such distinctions are: “right” and “left,” “relationship” and “duty,” “division” Now the lesser doubts.
The first of the treatise's 13 chapters is devoted to stressing this idea, as well as to outlining the Five Constant Factors that influence all military actions and thus all further topics of discussion. The next two chapters are concerned with some practical matters, particularly those dealing with national resources. Sun Tzu urges leaders to consider the costs of running a war, both human and monetary, and even encourages pilfering what's needed from the enemy, or else the resources of the state will not be equal to the strain.
Accordingly, he also dismisses prolonged sieges as foolhardy and rounds off the third chapter by stressing the importance of knowing the enemy as well as oneself.
Chapters four through six deal with preliminary tactics and calculations for engagement. Sun Tzu differentiates between when and how to use defensive and offensive tactics and goes on to classify offensive movements as either direct or indirect attacks, asserting that blending the two results in infinite combinations to victory.
The military master then teaches the reader how to read an enemy's strong and weak points, essentially stating that one should attack where the enemy is weakest, namely, where he isn't.
Therefore, by drawing the enemy to another location, you stand a greater chance of dividing and conquering his forces. The following four chapters are devoted to important concepts to remember during combat operations. Chapter seven discusses proper methods for maneuvering one's men, with special attention being paid to the use of signals, such as fires and drums, and to not overburdening them. Contribution especially in the context of the U. Conflict These generally fall across a spectrum from positive to negative and have been used at different times to characterize different states of the relationship.
The important point is practically all these terms have been used by one side characterizing the behaviors of the other, rather than as part of a commonly shared narrative about the relationship's future.
The evolution of American conceptualizations of the China relationship has been complex. Chinese conceptualizations of the U. But my core points remain -- very few of these conceptualizations of the bilateral relationship have been conjoint.
The basic reality is that as China's economy grows and supplants the U. In the absence of such a common narrative if in fact such narrative can be craftedthe truth is that the two nations are more likely to drift further apart, or at least drift more rapidly apart than might otherwise be the case.
By contrast, a common strategic narrative between the two could act as an organizing principle that reduces strategic drift, and encourages other more cooperative behaviors over time. So long, of course, as such a narrative embraces the complex reality of the relationship, and avoids motherhood statements which provide negligible operational guidance for those who have day-to-day responsibility, for the practical management of the relationship. Therefore I argue the relationship needs to consider a new strategic concept for the future that is capable of sufficiently embracing both American and Chinese realities, as well as areas of potential common endeavor for the future, and to do so in language which is comprehensible and meaningful in both capitals.
First, where the U. Second, what the United States and China may be able to actually "construct" together over time in their bilateral relationship, in the region as well in building new global public goods together over time; Third, how it might be possible for the U. The Core Concepts The core concepts here are being "realistic" about strategic commonalities and differences; being "constructive" about areas of strategic cooperation; and being cautiously open to the possibility of using constructive engagement to build strategic trust that in turn may begin to "transform" the relationship over time.
The hardest thing to do is to recommend how problems might be solved. Or perhaps best summarized as "constructive realism," given that my realist friends will always doubt the possibility of any fundamental transformation of such a deeply competitive relationship. The alternative approach is simply to allow strategic mistrust between the U. The easiest thing to do in international relations is to list all the problems. Operationalizing such a relationship is something else again.
There are a number of areas where the U. Below I list just five possible candidates. Globally, the climate change issue tops the list. Some may regard this as a soft security issue. In many parts of the world, it is already a hard security issue. When rains do not come, when extreme weather events become more frequent and intense, when farmers cannot plant or harvest their crops, these rapidly become hard security questions.
As the world's largest and second largest carbon emitters, China and the U. Perhaps neither state can sign a legally binding global treaty. But they can take parallel action and use other mechanisms such as the G20 to bring about a plurilateral agreement. After all, the G20 represents about 90 percent of total global carbon emissions.
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- How Ancient Chinese Thought Applies Today
The Xi-Obama agreement on climate change in November at the APEC Summit is a highly encouraging, hopeful and potentially historic step along these lines. This sentence was inserted after the APEC Summit since the speech from which this article is adapted was given earlier. I also know how hard this is. I have spent time in both Seoul and Pyongyang. I also know that neither the U.
Quotes from Mao Tse Tung
I believe if the North Korean nuclear threat can be permanently solved, and inter-Korean relations put on a stable and sustainable footing, the U.
On this, the U. I believe that a new wave of foreign direct investment in each other's economies will help bring the countries closer together over time. It's also good for business. The poor state of much of American public infrastructure provides a big potential market for Chinese investment.
Better infrastructure would also make the American public happier. The more the two economies are enmeshed over time, the less likely it is they will end up in conflict or war.
Many people only focus on the disagreements between China and the U. In fact, there is much they cooperate on in the Security Council as well.
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Particularly in Africa and in other regions where China has been a constructive partner and contributed much to U. They could also work together more effectively through U. I believe it is in the deep interests of both countries to have a resilient, effective and respected U.
Finally, within our own fraught region, we should better attend to the tasks of regional institution building. Unlike in Europe, we do not have a single pan-regional institution capable of enhancing common security and economic cooperation across the region with the objective of reducing historical tensions and enhancing regional unity over time.
As a region, we need to start cultivating the habits of regional cooperation. One practical area is in region-wide counter disaster management. Work has already begun on this. But it needs to be expanded, particularly when we don't know when our region's next big natural disaster will hit.
This type of regional security cooperation, under the aegis of an emerging regional institution like an Asia Pacific Community, helps build mutual confidence and trust over time.
Apart from these five areas listed above, there are many other potential areas for a common work program between the U. Deepening cooperation on global and regional counter-terrorism is another.
Common investment in major infrastructure projects in emerging markets in order to share risk, is yet a third. Similarly, common protocols for managing conflicting security interests should also be embraced. This should involve military to military arrangements to avoid or manage incidents in the air and incidents at sea. For example, the emerging practice by Chinese naval captains of "hail and respond" with their American counterparts has been welcomed by the U.
In other words, there is a long list of projects that could be embraced -- some of which are manageable, others apparently intractable. Constructive Realism If China and the U. And balance this through cooperation in other areas by "constructing" a new range of global, regional and bilateral "public goods" for the future.
But as I indicated above, it might also be possible to aim a little higher for the longer term future as well. I am not an idealist.Ralph Smart - Overcoming Relationship Doubts And Commitments Issues
I am a constructive realist. But if both sides can reach agreement on a range of new areas, it might just be possible to use these successes to change the overall content and atmosphere of the relationship over time as well. Trust tends to build on itself. Just as distrust builds on itself as well, compounding into deep enmity over time. And that is it is impossible to predict the power relativities between the two countries out to mid-century. Things could go wrong for either country. Many Chinese friends have concluded that the U.
They may be right. I'm not so certain. The Americans have a remarkable capacity to reinvent themselves. They are a growing population. And if we think, as many Americans now do, of an integrated North America in the future, including the integrated product and increasing labor markets of Canada, the U. This may not be insignificant, particularly after China's population peaks byand starts to decline.
Whatever the future may hold for both countries in terms of their relative size, capabilities and influence, it makes sense for these two great civilizations to work towards a common view of the planet, the world and our wider region here in Asia. Nations Choose Their Future Nations get to choose their futures. And I remain optimistic that the U.
That is why both sides need to explore how best to give definition to the concept of a new type of strategic relationship between them. To define this conceptually is important because strategic concepts and the language around them are important organizing principles in both countries, but particularly in a country as vast as China.
And as I have noted above, both the concepts and the language have to work equally effectively in both English and Chinese. The time has well and truly passed when the language of international relations should be exclusively written in English. And it is easier than we think for complex concepts to be simply lost in translation. They are also positive words in English. Xianshi, Jianshe, Gaige, or when put together: Realistic, Constructive, and, over time, Transformative. Of course all of this takes time.
Rome was not built in a day.
Sun Tzu's The Art of War: Summary & Quotes
That is why we need to also reflect on some modern Chinese political wisdom to help us as well. What we are describing is a gradual process but with a clear view of a destination: Deng roughly said that we must cross the river, feeling the stones, one by one. His strategic destination was a modern China.
But he recognized the process for getting there was feeling your way, one step at a time. And that strategy has succeeded in producing the modern China we have today. I believe this wisdom also applies to China's role in the world, as well as its relationship with the United States.
Perhaps the overall logic is something like this: