Attachment theory is a psychological model attempting to describe the dynamics of long-term and short-term interpersonal relationships between humans. " Attachment theory is not formulated as a general theory of relationships; . The development of attachment is a transactional process. Specific attachment behaviours. Phases of Attachment Development Attachment: the lasting emotional bond that forms between infants and their primary caregivers; Proximity maintenance: a . In addition, his stages of development are based on how children . Attachment Theory in Adults: Close Relationships, Parenting, Love, and.
Attachment Defined According to psychologists, the two most important relationships are those between parents and infants and those among peers. The parent-infant attachment begins to develop at birth and continues throughout life. This lesson will detail infant attachment and anxieties. According to psychologists Ainsworth and Bowlby, attachment is defined as a strong emotional bond that seeks to bind one person to another and is characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain a closeness - both physically and emotionally - to that specific figure of which the bond has been developed.
Infants are very social. They seek comfort and show a wide range of emotions from birth. The emotions allow the infant to form emotional attachments with their caregivers.
Attachment Theory | Simply Psychology
Infants progress through stages when forming these emotional attachments. Let's take a peek at the newborn! Undiscriminating Social Responsiveness Older Sibling: Mommy, why doesn't my new brother like me? He's not even looking at me! During the first months of life from birth to two or three monthsinfants are said to be in the undiscriminating social responsiveness stage of attachment. Their basic needs, such as hunger and safety, drive their responsiveness to other humans.
For example, when your brother is hungry, he will respond more to me.
- Phases of Attachment Development
- Infant Attachment Theory: 4 Stages of Parent-Infant Attachment
- Attachment Theory
Three measures were recorded: Stranger Anxiety - response to the arrival of a stranger. Separation Anxiety - distress level when separated from a carer, the degree of comfort needed on return.
Social Referencing - the degree a child looks at their carer to check how they should respond to something new secure base. They discovered that baby's attachments develop in the following sequence: Asocial 0 - 6 weeks Very young infants are asocial in that many kinds of stimuli, both social and non-social, produce a favorable reaction, such as a smile.
Indiscriminate Attachments 6 weeks to 7 months Infants indiscriminately enjoy human company, and most babies respond equally to any caregiver.
They get upset when an individual ceases to interact with them. From 3 months infants smile more at familiar faces and can be easily comfortable by a regular caregiver. Specific Attachment 7 - 9 months Special preference for a single attachment figure.
The baby looks to particular people for security, comfort, and protection. It shows fear of strangers stranger fear and unhappiness when separated from a special person separation anxiety. Some babies show stranger fear and separation anxiety much more frequently and intensely than others, nevertheless, they are seen as evidence that the baby has formed an attachment.
This has usually developed by one year of age. Multiple Attachment 10 months and onwards The baby becomes increasingly independent and forms several attachments. By 18 months the majority of infants have formed multiple attachments. The results of the study indicated that attachments were most likely to form with those who responded accurately to the baby's signals, not the person they spent more time with.
Schaffer and Emerson called this sensitive responsiveness. Intensely attached infants had mothers who responded quickly to their demands and, interacted with their child. Infants who were weakly attached had mothers who failed to interact. Many of the babies had several attachments by ten months old, including attachments to mothers, fathers, grandparents, siblings, and neighbors.
The mother was the main attachment figure for about half of the children at 18 months old and the father for most of the others. The most important fact in forming attachments is not who feeds and changes the child but who plays and communicates with him or her. Therefore, responsiveness appeared to be the key to attachment. Attachment Theories Psychologists have proposed two main theories that are believed to be important in forming attachments.
The basis for the learning of attachments is the provision of food. An infant will initially form an attachment to whoever feeds it.
Attachment theory - Wikipedia
They learn to associate the feeder usually the mother with the comfort of being fed and through the process of classical conditioningcome to find contact with the mother comforting. They also find that certain behaviors e.The Four Attachment Styles of Love
The evolutionary theory of attachment e. The determinant of attachment is not food, but care and responsiveness.
Bowlby suggested that a child would initially form only one primary attachment monotropy and that the attachment figure acted as a secure base for exploring the world.
The attachment relationship acts as a prototype for all future social relationships so disrupting it can have severe consequences. This theory also suggests that there is a critical period for developing an attachment about 0 -5 years.
If an attachment has not developed during this period, then the child will suffer from irreversible developmental consequences, such as reduced intelligence and increased aggression.
These infants were highly dependent on their mothers for nutrition, protection, comfort, and socialization. What, exactly, though, was the basis of the bond? The behavioral theory of attachment would suggest that an infant would form an attachment with a carer that provides food.
Harry Harlow did a number of studies on attachment in rhesus monkeys during the 's and 's. His experiments took several forms: They had no contact with each other or anybody else. He kept some this way for three months, some for six, some for nine and some for the first year of their lives. He then put them back with other monkeys to see what effect their failure to form attachment had on behavior.
The monkeys engaged in bizarre behavior such as clutching their own bodies and rocking compulsively. They were then placed back in the company of other monkeys. To start with the babies were scared of the other monkeys, and then became very aggressive towards them. They were also unable to communicate or socialize with other monkeys. The other monkeys bullied them. They indulged in self-mutilation, tearing hair out, scratching, and biting their own arms and legs. The extent of the abnormal behavior reflected the length of the isolation.
Those kept in isolation for three months were the least affected, but those in isolation for a year never recovered the effects of privation. Four of the monkeys could get milk from the wire mother and four from the cloth mother. The animals were studied for days.
Both groups of monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother even if she had no milk. The infant would only go to the wire mother when hungry. Once fed it would return to the cloth mother for most of the day.