Critical thinking - Wikipedia
"Most formal definitions characterize critical thinking as the intentional Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking. To do so requires examining logical relationships among statements or data. apply critical thinking skills to their academic studies, to the complex problems that they. One of the most important of these skills is critical thinking because it relates to nearly . and said some unkind words to you, which put a crimp in the relationship. Your final art class project challenges you to conceptualize form in new ways. But most of it is dormant; most is undeveloped. Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker (we become aware of problems in our thinking) Figure out the logic of the problem by identifying its elements. In other . You notice then how redefining situations (and relationships) enables you to “Get in Touch With Your Emotions.
The Unreflective Thinker we are unaware of significant problems in our thinking Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker we become aware of problems in our thinking Stage Three: The Beginning Thinker we try to improve but without regular practice Stage Four: The Practicing Thinker we recognize the necessity of regular practice Stage Five: The Advanced Thinker we advance in accordance with our practice Stage Six: In this article, we will explain 9 strategies that any motivated person can use to develop as a thinker.
As we explain the strategy, we will describe it as if we were talking directly to such a person. Further details to our descriptions may need to be added for those who know little about critical thinking. Here are the 9: A Problem A Day. Keep An Intellectual Journal. Deal with Your Ego. Redefine the Way You See Things. Get in touch with your emotions. Analyze group influences on your life. There is nothing magical about our ideas.
No one of them is essential.
Nevertheless, each represents a plausible way to begin to do something concrete to improve thinking in a regular way. All humans waste some time; that is, fail to use all of their time productively or even pleasurably. Sometimes we jump from one diversion to another, without enjoying any of them. Sometimes we become irritated about matters beyond our control. Sometimes we worry unproductively. Sometimes we spend time regretting what is past.
Sometimes we just stare off blankly into space. So why not take advantage of the time you normally waste by practicing your critical thinking during that otherwise wasted time? For example, instead of sitting in front of the TV at the end of the day flicking from channel to channel in a vain search for a program worth watching, spend that time, or at least part of it, thinking back over your day and evaluating your strengths and weaknesses.
For example, you might ask yourself questions like these: When did I do my worst thinking today? When did I do my best? What in fact did I think about today? Did I figure anything out? Did I allow any negative thinking to frustrate me unnecessarily? If I had to repeat today what would I do differently?
Did I do anything today to further my long-term goals? Did I act in accordance with my own expressed values? If I spent every day this way for 10 years, would I at the end have accomplished something worthy of that time? It would be important of course to take a little time with each question. It would also be useful to record your observations so that you are forced to spell out details and be explicit in what you recognize and see.
As time passes, you will notice patterns in your thinking. At the beginning of each day perhaps driving to work or going to school choose a problem to work on when you have free moments. Figure out the logic of the problem by identifying its elements. In other words, systematically think through the questions: What exactly is the problem? How can I put it into the form of a question. How does it relate to my goals, purposes, and needs? State the problem as clearly and precisely as you can.
Figure out, for example, what sorts of things you are going to have to do to solve it. Distinguish Problems over which you have some control from problems over which you have no control. In other words, the irony of the failure of humans to make a commitment to substantive intellectual standards is not puzzling, however vexing it may be.
Nevertheless, to develop as a thinker, to become a thinker with a foundational knowledge of how to analyze, assess, and improve thinking; we must internalize the logic of basic intellectual standards. These are eight basic intellectual standards we shall concentrate on. Each speaks for itself and is consequently highly intuitive, from an intellectual point of view.
For example, suppose someone said, "OK, OK, admittedly my thinking is typically unclear, inaccurate, imprecise, irrelevant, superficial, narrow-minded, illogical, and trivial!!! There is no need to "prove" that, all other things being equal clear thinking is better than unclear thinking, accurate thinking better than inaccurate, precise thinking better than imprecise, relevant better than irrelevant, etc.
This is intuitive to us--if the question is explicitly put to us, because on many occasions we have experienced the problems that result from a failure to check thinking against such standards. For example, we have tried to find a place with unclear directions; we have been misled by inaccurate statements; we have not had the precise details we needed in some context; we were diverted from achieving what we were after by getting drawn off into irrelevant details; we failed to deal with the complexity of an issue responding rather to it superficially ; we reasoned narrowly ignoring an alternative point of view only to find that we needed the insight that only that point of view could provide; etc.
In other words, though we all frequently fall prey to using "absurd" standards because they often function subconsciously and self-servingly ; we nevertheless are quite capable of recognizing appropriate intellectual standards when they are put to us explicitly and consciously.
At an abstract level virtually everyone--if the question were properly put to them--would value being able to think clearly, precisely, accurately, relevantly, deeply, broadly, and logically.
The problem is that the question is not being put to us. The basic intellectual standards essential to critical thinking are not typically taught in schools or in the home. They are certainly not being taught in the popular media. Indeed, if anything, the school, the home, the media, and social life in general tend to praise thinking that is self-serving, egocentric, and sociocentric. Inadvertently, we teach, therefore, "absurd" standards for thinking, though of course these absurd standards serve various pathological human functions--like justifying getting what we want irrespective of the legitimate rights of others or protecting the status quo when it favors us irrespective of who suffers deprivation as a resultetc.
Questions based on the standards for thought are, as we have already suggested, largely intuitive when explicitly expressed: Is my thinking clear?
Critical Thinking and Problem-solving
Is my thinking as precise as it needs to be? Is my thinking relevant to the issue? Is my thinking dealing with the complexities of this issue or problem? Is my thinking too narrow or one-sided?
Is my thinking logical? Is my thinking focusing on what is most significant? Each of these basic questions leads to more refined questions that enable us to make a better determination of where our thinking stands.
Consider each of these sub-questions as follow-up on the basic ones: Is My Thinking Clear?
Critical Thinking in Everyday Life: 9 Strategies
Clarity is a gateway standard. If a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevant. For example, the question "What can be done about the education system in America? In order to adequately address the question, we would need to have a clearer understanding of what the person asking the question is considering the "problem" to be.
A clearer question might be "What can educators do to ensure that students learn the skills and abilities which help them function successfully on the job and in their daily decision-making? Do I need to provide an illustration of what I mean? Do I need to give an example from everyday life? Is My Thinking Accurate? How could I check to see if this is true?
How could I find out if this is correct? How could I verify or test to see if this is accurate? Do I need to be more specific? Do I need to give more details? Do I need to be more exact? Is My Thinking Relevant to the Issue? How does that relate to the question at issue? How does that bear upon the problem I am concerned with? How does this information help me effectively deal with the issue?
A statement can be clear, accurate, precise, and relevant, but superficial that is, lack depth. For example, the statement "Just Say No" which is often used to discourage children and teens from using drugs, is clear, accurate, precise, and relevant.
Nevertheless, it lacks depth because it treats an extremely complex issue, the pervasive problem of drug use among young people, superficially. It fails to deal with the complexities of the issue.
- Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory
- Critical thinking
- The Critical Mind is A Questioning Mind
What factors make this a difficult problem? What are some of the complexities embedded in this issue? What are some of the difficulties I need to deal with?
A line of reasoning may be clear, accurate, precise, relevant, and deep, but lack breadth as in an argument from either the conservative or liberal standpoints which gets deeply into an issue, but only recognizes the insights of one side of the question. Am I look at this issue in a narrow-minded way? Do I need to look at this from another perspective? Do I need to consider another point of view?
Do I need to look at this situation in other ways? Is My Thinking Logical?
Critical Thinking Development: A Stage Theory
When we think, we bring a variety of thoughts together into some order. When the combination of thoughts are mutually supporting and make sense in combination, the thinking is "logical. Does my conclusion follow from the evidence or is there a more logical conclusion?
Is this the most important problem I need to deal with at this time? Which of these facts are the most important for me to consider? Is this the most essential idea which I should focus on? For students to learn content, intellectual engagement is crucial. All students must do their own thinking, their own construction of knowledge. Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions, readings, activities that stimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject.
Historically, teaching of critical thinking focused only on logical procedures such as formal and informal logic. This emphasized to students that good thinking is equivalent to logical thinking. However, a second wave of critical thinking, urges educators to value conventional techniques, meanwhile expanding what it means to be a critical thinker.
These concepts invite students to incorporate their own perspectives and experiences into their thinking. In the English and Welsh school systems, Critical Thinking is offered as a subject that to year-olds can take as an A-Level. The full Advanced GCE is now available: The A-level tests candidates on their ability to think critically about, and analyze, arguments on their deductive or inductive validity, as well as producing their own arguments.
It also tests their ability to analyze certain related topics such as credibility and ethical decision-making. However, due to its comparative lack of subject content, many universities do not accept it as a main A-level for admissions. In Qatarcritical thinking was offered by AL-Bairaq —an outreach, non-traditional educational program that targets high school students and focuses on a curriculum based on STEM fields.
Faculty members train and mentor the students and help develop and enhance their critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork skills. It concluded that although faculty may aspire to develop students' thinking skills, in practice they have tended to aim at facts and concepts utilizing lowest levels of cognitionrather than developing intellect or values. In a more recent meta-analysis, researchers reviewed quasi- or true-experimental studies, all of which used some form of standardized critical thinking measure to assess the outcome variable.
The results emphasized the need for exposing students to real-world problems and the importance in encouraging open dialogue within a supportive environment. Effective strategies for teaching critical thinking are thought to be possible in a wide variety of educational settings. Some success was noted and the researchers emphasized the value of the humanities in providing the skills to evaluate current events and qualitative data in context.
Within the framework of scientific skepticismthe process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion. The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application.