English Reformation - Wikipedia
King Henry VIII () ruled England for 36 years, presiding over sweeping changes that brought his nation into the Protestant Reformation. He also worried that his marriage to Catherine had been cursed by God because of the Old. Henry VIII and his contribution to the Reformation. Following his marriage and coronation in June Henry spent a great deal of time and money in splendid . The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church Based on Henry VIII's desire for an annulment of his marriage (first requested of Pope Clement VII in ), the English Reformation was at the.
In later years Henry was not so forgiving. Henry turned to literature and summoned Sir Thomas More to his Court and before long More was a constant companion.
Meanwhile critics focussed on the monasteries and held up as an example the abbot of St Albans who had taken a married woman as his concubine and placed her at the head of a nunnery; profligacy and lechery was rampant among the monks. Notably Wolsey complained to the pope and obtained permission to secularise some 22 institutions. It was received with unprecedented enthusiasm.
Instantly the church reacted, not by attacking men of social standing and intellect, but by monks and friars trying to stir up the common people.
To add to the consternation of the clerics Erasmus was very vocal in his support for translations into vulgar tongues. This was all that Cromwell needed to shut down the monastery. At Bradley monastic house, the prior was accused of fathering six children; at Lampley Convent, Mariana Wryte had given birth to three children and Johanna Standen to six; at Lichfield Convent, two nuns were found to be pregnant and at Pershore Monastic House, monks were found to be drunk at Mass.
The smaller monasteries were shut down by while the larger and more valuable ones were shut by Few people in England were sorry to see them go. Few monks protested as they were given pensions or jobs where their monastery was.
Some chief monks — abbots — were hanged but this was a rarity. Some monastery buildings were reduced to ruin as the local population was allowed to take what they wanted as long as the silver and gold in the monastery went to the Crown.
This meant that expensive building bricks etc. This alone made the Dissolution popular with the majority of the people who tended to dislike lazy monks anyhow. The ruined abbey at Battle — a victim of the Reformation However, the vast bulk of the wealth of the monasteries went to Henry.
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Some was spent building defences against France on the south coast around Portsmouth; a small amount went on paying pensions to monks and abbots. The only real protest in England to what Henry was doing came in with the Pilgrimage of Grace. This was lead by Robert Aske, a lawyer. He wanted the monasteries left alone. Aske, along with several thousands of others, marched to London. Henry promised to look into their complaints and many of the protesters went home satisfied with this.
Their complaints were never looked into.
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Aske was arrested and hung from a church tower in chains until he died of starvation. When Henry became king inthe church in England was as follows: Head of the Church: To reform means to change.
- The Reformation
This is why this event is called the English Reformation as it did change the way the church was run throughout England. However, the death of Henry in did not see an end of the religious problems of England.
The King's personal religious views, however, remained largely traditional. Bernard writes that Henry's religious policies were purposely ambiguous in order to foster religious compromise. Cranmer also secretly married Osiander's niece. Cranmer and Henry felt obliged to seek assistance from Strasbourg and Baselwhich brought him into contact with the more radical ideas associated with Huldrych Zwingli.
In Januarythe King made Cromwell his vicegerent in spirituals. Effectively the King's vicar generalCromwell's authority was greater than that of bishops.
Even the Archbishop of Canterbury answered to Cromwell. He persuaded Henry that safety from political alliances that Rome might attempt to bring together lay in negotiations with the German Lutheran princes of the Schmalkaldic League. The negotiations did not lead to an alliance, but it brought Lutheran ideas to England.
This was followed by the Bishops' Book in These established a semi-Lutheran doctrine for the church. Justification by faith, qualified by an emphasis on good works following justification, was a core teaching. The traditional seven sacraments were reduced to three only— baptismEucharist and penance. Catholic teaching on praying to saintspurgatory and the use of images in worship was undermined.
In Augustthe same month the Ten Articles were published, Cromwell issued a set of Royal Injunctions to the clergy.