Science and Technology - Oxford Reference
Science and technology studies, or science, technology and society studies (both abbreviated The science, technology, and society movement tried to humanize those who would make The society has since grown into the most important professional association of science and technology studies scholars worldwide. Technology is the collection of techniques, skills, methods . The distinction between science, engineering, and The exact relations between science and technology in particular. Fields of Science and Technology (FOS) is a compulsory classification for statistics of branches of scholarly and technical fields, published by the OECD in It was created out of the need to interchange data of research facilities, Edit links. This page was last edited on 1 December , at (UTC).
Virtual spying is almost free compared to the costs of physical spying. The movement for net neutrality argues that the Internet should not be a resource that is dominated by one particular group, specifically those with more money to spend on Internet access.
A counterexample to the tragedy of the commons is offered by Andrew Kahrl. Privatization can be a way to deal with the tragedy of the commons. However, Kahrl suggests that the privatization of beaches on Long Islandin an attempt to combat overuse of Long Island beaches, made the residents of Long Island more susceptible to flood damage from Hurricane Sandy.
The privatization of these beaches took away from the protection offered by the natural landscape. Tidal lands that offer natural protection were drained and developed. This attempt to combat the tragedy of the commons by privatization was counter-productive. Privatization actually destroyed the public good of natural protection from the landscape. Modernity represents the political and social structures of the society, the sum of interpersonal discourse, and ultimately a snapshot of society's direction at a point in time.
Unfortunately conventional modernity is incapable of modeling alternative directions for further growth within our society.
Also, this concept is ineffective at analyzing similar but unique modern societies such as those found in the diverse cultures of the developing world. Problems can be summarized into two elements: Previously, modernity carried a connotation of the current state of being modern, and its evolution through European colonialism. The process of becoming "modern" is believed to occur in a linear, pre-determined way, and is seen by Philip Brey as a way of to interpret and evaluate social and cultural formations.
This thought ties in with modernization theorythe thought that societies progress from "pre-modern" to "modern" societies.
History of science and technology
Within the field of science and technology, there are two main lenses with which to view modernity. The first is as a way for society to quantify what it wants to move towards. In effect, we can discuss the notion of "alternative modernity" as described by Andrew Feenberg and which of these we would like to move towards. Alternatively, modernity can be used to analyze the differences in interactions between cultures and individuals.
From this perspective, alternative modernities exist simultaneously, based on differing cultural and societal expectations of how a society or an individual within society should function. Because of different types of interactions across different cultures, each culture will have a different modernity. Pace of innovation[ edit ] See also: Pace of innovation Pace of Innovation is the speed at which technological innovation or advancement is occurring, with the most apparent instances being too slow or too rapid.
Both these rates of innovation are extreme and therefore have effects on the people that get to use this technology. No innovation without representation[ edit ] The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met.
August Main article: No innovation without representation "No innovation without representation" is a democratic ideal of ensuring that everyone involved gets a chance to be represented fairly in technological developments. Langdon Winner states that groups and social interests likely to be affected by a particular kind of technological change ought to be represented at an early stage in defining exactly what that technology will be.
It is the idea that relevant parties have a say in technological developments and are not left in the dark. Privileged positions of business and science The privileged positions of business and science refer to the unique authority that persons in these areas hold in economic, political, and technosocial affairs.
Businesses have strong decision-making abilities in the function of society, essentially choosing what technological innovations to develop. Scientists and technologists have valuable knowledge, ability to pursue the technological innovations they want.
They proceed largely without public scrutiny and as if they had the consent of those potentially affected by their discoveries and creations.
Legacy thinking[ edit ] Legacy thinking is defined as an inherited method of thinking imposed from an external source without objection by the individual, because it is already widely accepted by society. Legacy thinking can impair the ability to drive technology for the betterment of society by blinding people to innovations that do not fit into their accepted model of how society works.
By accepting ideas without questioning them, people often see all solutions that contradict these accepted ideas as impossible or impractical.
Legacy thinking tends to advantage the wealthy, who have the means to project their ideas on the public. It may be used by the wealthy as a vehicle to drive technology in their favor rather than for the greater good. Examining the role of citizen participation and representation in politics provides an excellent example of legacy thinking in society. The belief that one can spend money freely to gain influence has been popularized, leading to public acceptance of corporate lobbying.
As a result, a self-established role in politics has been cemented where the public does not exercise the power ensured to them by the Constitution to the fullest extent.
This can become a barrier to political progress as corporations who have the capital to spend have the potential to wield great influence over policy.
Additionally, an examination of net neutrality functions as a separate example of legacy thinking. Starting with dial-upthe internet has always been viewed as a private luxury good. They use it in and out of life every day.
History of science and technology - Wikipedia
Since the American public is so dependent upon internet there is little for them to do. Renaissance humanism was an "ethical theory and practice that emphasized reason, scientific inquiry and human fulfillment in the natural world," said Abernethy. With the sheer success of science and the steady advance of rationalismthe individual scientist gained prestige. This allowed more people to read and learn from the scripture, leading to the Evangelical movement. The people who spread this message, concentrated more on individual agency rather than the structures of the Church.
It teaches people to be satisfied with trivial, supernatural non-explanations and blinds them to the wonderful real explanations that we have within our grasp. It teaches them to accept authority, revelation and faith instead of always insisting on evidence. Because of this both are incompatible as currently practiced and the debate of compatibility or incompatibility will be eternal. Stenger 's view is that science and religion are incompatible due to conflicts between approaches of knowing and the availability of alternative plausible natural explanations for phenomena that is usually explained in religious contexts.
Carrollsince religion makes claims that are not compatible with science, such as supernatural events, therefore both are incompatible. According to Dawkins, religion "subverts science and saps the intellect".
According to Renny Thomas' study on Indian scientists, atheistic scientists in India called themselves atheists even while accepting that their lifestyle is very much a part of tradition and religion.
Thus, they differ from Western atheists in that for them following the lifestyle of a religion is not antithetical to atheism. EllisKenneth R. MillerKatharine HayhoeGeorge Coyne and Simon Conway Morris argue for compatibility since they do not agree that science is incompatible with religion and vice versa.
They argue that science provides many opportunities to look for and find God in nature and to reflect on their beliefs. What he finds particularly odd and unjustified is in how atheists often come to invoke scientific authority on their non-scientific philosophical conclusions like there being no point or no meaning to the universe as the only viable option when the scientific method and science never have had any way of addressing questions of meaning or God in the first place.
Furthermore, he notes that since evolution made the brain and since the brain can handle both religion and science, there is no natural incompatibility between the concepts at the biological level. He argues that leaders in science sometimes trump older scientific baggage and that leaders in theology do the same, so once theological intellectuals are taken into account, people who represent extreme positions like Ken Ham and Eugenie Scott will become irrelevant.
Conflict thesis The conflict thesiswhich holds that religion and science have been in conflict continuously throughout history, was popularized in the 19th century by John William Draper 's and Andrew Dickson White 's accounts. It was in the 19th century that relationship between science and religion became an actual formal topic of discourse, while before this no one had pitted science against religion or vice versa, though occasional complex interactions had been expressed before the 19th century.
If Galileo and the Scopes trial come to mind as examples of conflict, they were the exceptions rather than the rule. By Galileo went to Rome to try to persuade Catholic Church authorities not to ban Copernicus' ideas. In the end, a decree of the Congregation of the Index was issued, declaring that the ideas that the Sun stood still and that the Earth moved were "false" and "altogether contrary to Holy Scripture", and suspending Copernicus's De Revolutionibus until it could be corrected.
Galileo was found "vehemently suspect of heresy", namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the center of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves. He was required to "abjure, curse and detest" those opinions.
Science and technology in India
The Church had merely sided with the scientific consensus of the time. Only the latter was fulfilled by Galileo. Although the preface of his book claims that the character is named after a famous Aristotelian philosopher Simplicius in Latin, Simplicio in Italianthe name "Simplicio" in Italian also has the connotation of "simpleton".
Most historians agree Galileo did not act out of malice and felt blindsided by the reaction to his book. Galileo had alienated one of his biggest and most powerful supporters, the Pope, and was called to Rome to defend his writings. Graylingstill believes there is competition between science and religions and point to the origin of the universe, the nature of human beings and the possibility of miracles  Independence[ edit ] A modern view, described by Stephen Jay Gould as " non-overlapping magisteria " NOMAis that science and religion deal with fundamentally separate aspects of human experience and so, when each stays within its own domain, they co-exist peacefully.
Stace viewed independence from the perspective of the philosophy of religion. Stace felt that science and religion, when each is viewed in its own domain, are both consistent and complete. In science, explanations must be based on evidence drawn from examining the natural world. Scientifically based observations or experiments that conflict with an explanation eventually must lead to modification or even abandonment of that explanation.
Religious faith, in contrast, does not depend on empirical evidence, is not necessarily modified in the face of conflicting evidence, and typically involves supernatural forces or entities. With the world at their fingertips, children can learn anything they wish to. But with the uncensored sources from the internetwithout proper supervision, children can be exposed to explicit material at inappropriate ages. Technology has a serious effect on youth's health.
Science and technology - Wikipedia
The overuse of technology is said to be associated with sleep deprivation which is linked to obesity and poor academic performance in the lives of adolescents. Makers of arrowheads, for example, might have realized they could do better by concentrating on making arrowheads and barter for other needs.
Regardless of goods and services bartered, some amount of technology was involved—if no more than in the making of shell and bead jewelry. Even the shaman's potions and sacred objects can be said to have involved some technology.
So, from the very beginnings, technology can be said to have spurred the development of more elaborate economies.
Technology is seen as primary source in economic development. The level of technology is important to determine the economic growth. It is the technological process which keeps the economy moving. In the modern world, superior technologies, resources, geography, and history give rise to robust economies; and in a well-functioning, robust economy, economic excess naturally flows into greater use of technology.
Moreover, because technology is such an inseparable part of human society, especially in its economic aspects, funding sources for new technological endeavors are virtually illimitable. However, while in the beginning, technological investment involved little more than the time, efforts, and skills of one or a few men, today, such investment may involve the collective labor and skills of many millions.
Funding[ edit ] Consequently, the sources of funding for large technological efforts have dramatically narrowed, since few have ready access to the collective labor of a whole society, or even a large part. It is conventional to divide up funding sources into governmental involving whole, or nearly whole, social enterprises and private involving more limited, but generally more sharply focused business or individual enterprises.